Eco-tourism is a form of tourism that involves traveling to natural areas that are relatively untouched and engaging in activities that do not harm the environment or disrupt the local ecosystem.

(i) Yankari National Park
(ii) Obudu Mountain Resort
(iii) Gashaka-Gumti National Park
(iv) Erin Ijesha Waterfalls
(v) Okomu National Park

(i) Preservation of cultural heritage: Cultural tourism plays a significant role in the preservation of Nigeria’s rich cultural heritage. By showcasing traditional arts crafts music dance and rituals tourism encourages the continued practice and transmission of cultural traditions ensuring they are passed on to future generations.

(ii) Economic benefits: Cultural tourism development can provide economic benefits to local communities. It creates employment opportunities for artisans guides performers and other individuals involved in the tourism industry.

(iii) Promotion of national unity: Nigeria is a diverse country with various ethnic groups and cultures. Cultural tourism can foster a sense of national unity by bringing people from different backgrounds together to appreciate and respect each other’s cultures.

(iv) Promotion of local entrepreneurship: Cultural tourism provides opportunities for local entrepreneurs to showcase and promote their cultural products and services. Local artisans traditional craftsmen and cultural performers can gain recognition and generate income through the sale of their products and performances to tourists.



A tourist attraction is a place activity or event that is specifically designed to attract tourists and is considered as a point of interest for travelers.

(i) Cultural attractions: These attractions showcase the cultural heritage of a destination such as historical sites museums art galleries music festivals and traditional performing arts.

(ii) Natural attractions: These attractions are primarily based on the natural environment and its features. They encompass landscapes national parks wildlife reserves mountains beaches waterfalls and other geographical formations.

(iii) Historical attractions: These attractions are centered around the historical significance of a place or event. They offer insights into the past and allow visitors to learn about the history of a particular area.

(iv) Recreational attractions: These attractions offer leisure and entertainment activities for tourists. They include theme parks amusement parks water parks sports facilities adventure parks zoos aquariums and recreational centers.

Heritage refers to the inherited physical natural and cultural characteristics and assets of a particular region or community. It includes historical sites traditions customs language folklore cuisine craftsmanship natural landscapes and artifacts.

(i) Heritage holds cultural historical or natural significance that is recognized and valued by a community or society. It represents the collective memory and identity of a place or people.

(ii) Heritage requires efforts to protect and conserve its physical and intangible aspects. Preservation ensures that future generations can appreciate and learn from the past.

(iii) Heritage should possess an authentic and genuine representation of its original form meaning or purpose. This ensures that the integrity and value of the heritage are maintained.

(iv) Heritage has the potential to attract tourists and generate economic benefits for a destination. By promoting and showcasing heritage it can contribute to tourism development and local economies.



Suitable tourism development refers to a process of planning managing and implementing tourism activities in a manner that is economically viable socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable.

(i) Economic development: Sustainable tourism development can contribute to economic growth by generating revenue creating job opportunities and encouraging investment in local industries such as accommodation transportation and handicrafts.

(ii) Preservation of cultural heritage: Tourism development can help preserve and promote the cultural heritage of Nigeria by showcasing traditional arts crafts music dance and other cultural expressions.

(iii) Environmental protection: Sustainable tourism development can play a crucial role in preserving Nigeria’s natural environment and biodiversity. It can promote responsible tourism practices such as waste management conservation of natural resources and protection of wildlife habitats.

(iv) Community empowerment: Tourism development can empower local communities by involving them in decision-making processes providing opportunities for entrepreneurship and income generation and promoting inclusive and sustainable development.

(i) Infrastructure and services: Nigeria faces significant challenges in terms of inadequate infrastructure and basic services such as transportation systems electricity supply water and sanitation facilities and healthcare services. The lack of proper infrastructure can hinder the development and growth of the tourism industry.

(ii) Security concerns: Nigeria has faced security challenges including terrorism insurgency and communal conflicts. These security concerns can deter tourists from visiting the country and negatively impact the tourism industry.

(iii) Political instability and corruption: Nigeria has experienced periods of political instability and corruption which can create an unfavorable environment for tourism development. The lack of political stability and transparency can discourage investment in the tourism sector and hinder its growth.

(iv) Lack of skilled workforce: The tourism industry in Nigeria often faces a shortage of skilled and trained manpower. There is a need for capacity building initiatives and training programs to develop a skilled workforce that can provide quality services and meet the demands of tourists.

(v) Environmental degradation: Nigeria is facing various environmental challenges including deforestation pollution and degradation of natural resources. These environmental issues can negatively impact the attractiveness of tourist destinations and harm the sustainability of the tourism industry.



(i) Infrastructure Development: The committee can invest in improving infrastructure such as roads, transportation systems, and utilities to enhance accessibility and convenience for tourists. This could include building or upgrading airports, bus terminals, and parking facilities to accommodate higher visitor numbers.

(ii) Cultural and Heritage Promotion: Highlighting the unique cultural and heritage assets of the area can attract tourists interested in experiencing local traditions, festivals, art, and history. The committee can organize cultural events, workshops, and tours that showcase the area’s identity, leading to a more authentic and enriching experience for visitors.

(iii) Eco-tourism and Natural Resources: If the area is blessed with natural beauty, biodiversity, and ecotourism potential, the committee can develop sustainable tourism practices that allow tourists to enjoy the environment without harming it. This might involve creating hiking trails, wildlife observation points, and eco-friendly accommodations while implementing conservation measures to preserve the natural resources.

(i) Regulation and Licensing: Public agencies ensure that tourism-related businesses adhere to regulations and standards, maintaining the safety and quality of services offered to tourists.

(ii) Infrastructure Development: Public agencies are responsible for developing and maintaining essential infrastructure such as roads, airports, public transportation systems, and sanitation facilities that are crucial for tourism development.

(iii) Destination Marketing: Public agencies often engage in destination marketing campaigns to promote the region’s attractions, events, and unique features.

(iv) Tourism Research and Planning: Public agencies conduct research to gather data on tourism trends, visitor preferences, and economic impacts.

(v) Environmental Conservation: Many public agencies work to preserve the natural and cultural resources that attract tourists in the first place.

(i) Funding: Governments can allocate funds to support public agencies in their efforts to develop tourism infrastructure, marketing campaigns, and sustainable practices.

(ii) Capacity Building: Offering training and capacity-building programs to public agency staff can enhance their skills in areas like destination management, marketing, and sustainable tourism practices.

(iii) Policy and Regulation: Governments can collaborate with public agencies to develop and enforce policies and regulations that ensure responsible and sustainable tourism development.

(iv) Research and Data Collection: Governments can support data collection and research initiatives that provide insights into visitor preferences, economic impacts, and environmental sustainability.

(v) Public-Private Partnerships: Governments can facilitate partnerships between public agencies and private businesses to jointly invest in and develop tourism infrastructure and services.

(vi) Community Engagement: Governments can encourage public agencies to involve local communities in the decision-making process for tourism development, ensuring that the benefits of tourism are spread equitably and that community concerns are addressed.



(i) Enhanced customer experience: Support services play a crucial role in ensuring a positive customer experience in the tourism industry. Services such as transportation accommodation tour guides and customer service specialists contribute to making the customers’ journey smooth and enjoyable.

(ii) Increased operational efficiency: Support services help in improving the overall efficiency of a tourism business. Services like supply chain management IT support and maintenance services ensure that the business functions smoothly and without any disruptions.

(iii) Cost savings: By outsourcing certain support services tourism businesses can save costs. For example, instead of maintaining their transportation fleet, they can collaborate with a local transportation service provider saving costs on maintenance and fleet management.

(iv) Focus on core competencies: Support services allow tourism businesses to focus on their core competencies such as offering unique travel experiences or creating tailored packages. By outsourcing support services businesses can allocate their resources and attention to what they do best while relying on experts to handle other aspects of the business.

(i) Service delivery refers to the actual provision of tourism services to customers whereas support services refer to the ancillary services that enable the smooth functioning of the tourism business.

(ii) Service delivery is customer-facing directly interacting with customers and providing the services they have paid for. While support services are behind the scenes ensuring that the necessary infrastructure and resources are available to deliver quality services.

(iii) Service delivery focuses on meeting customer expectations and delivering a satisfactory experience. Support services while indirectly contributing to customer satisfaction are primarily focused on supporting the operations of the tourism business and ensuring its overall efficiency.

(i) Employment generation: Cottage industries provide employment opportunities, especially in rural areas where job opportunities may be limited. The establishment of small-scale industries provides income opportunities for local communities thereby reducing unemployment rates.

(ii) Rural development: Cottage industries can contribute to the development of rural areas by creating economic activity and improving the living standards of the local population. They help in the diversification of the local economy and reduce dependency on agriculture.

(iii) Poverty reduction: Cottage industries can help alleviate poverty by providing income-generating activities for the poor. They offer opportunities for individuals to develop skills and generate income leading to improved living conditions and reduced poverty levels.

(iv) Cultural preservation: Cottage industries often focus on traditional handicrafts and artisanal products preserving the cultural heritage of a region. These industries promote cultural tourism and contribute to the preservation of traditional skills and craftsmanship.

(v) Economic resilience: Cottage industries can contribute to the overall economic resilience of a country. They provide a diverse range of products and services reducing reliance on a single sector and promoting economic stability.



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