The concept of a database refers to an organized collection of structured data that is stored and managed electronically. It is designed to efficiently store, retrieve, and manage large amounts of information. Databases typically use tables to organize data into rows and columns.

Character: A character is a single text unit or symbol, such as a letter, number, punctuation mark, or space.

Field: In database terminology, a field is a specific type of data stored in a table. A field usually contains information relevant to the entire row of data that it belongs to.

(i) Access to information: The internet provides access to a huge amount of information that would otherwise be unavailable.
(ii) Communication: The internet has revolutionized how we communicate with one another. People can exchange messages instantly and communicate in real-time, no matter where they are located.
(iii) Entertainment: The internet has made it easier for people to access entertainment, such as movies, music, games, and much more.
(iv) Shopping: People can now shop online from anywhere in the world, without having to set foot inside a store.
(v) Social Networking: Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn provide a platform for people to share ideas and stay connected.
(vi) Education: The internet has made it easier than ever for students to learn, by providing access to an abundance of educational resources.

A file is a collection of data that is stored on a computer or other electronic device. It can contain text, images, videos, programs, or any other type of information. Files are typically named and have a specific file format that determines how the data should be organized.


A folder is a virtual container in a computer’s file system that stores and organizes multiple files. Folders allow users to logically group related files together, making it easier to locate them when needed.



(check the diagram below)
-Bus Topology-
A bus topology is a network configuration where all the devices are connected to a single communication line, called a bus. In this topology, devices are connected to the bus through a device that acts as a repeater, allowing the signal to be propagated in both directions.

(Check the diagram below)
-Star Topology-
A star topology is a network configuration in which each device is connected directly to a single central device known as the “hub”. In this topology, the hub acts as a connection point between all the other devices in the network and sends data packets to each device.

Hacking: Hacking is the unauthorized access or control of another person’s computer system in order to steal or manipulate data or resources.

Piracy: Piracy is the unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted material such as music, movies, software, etc.

(i) Hard Disk Drives (HDDs): These are traditional storage devices that use magnetic discs to store and retrieve data. Examples Western Digital Caviar Blue, Seagate BarraCuda
(ii) Solid-State Drives (SSDs): These are newer storage devices that use integrated circuits to store and retrieve data. Examples, the Samsung 860 EVO, Kingston A400.



An operating system is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

(i) Windows Operating System
(ii) Linux Operating System

(i) To provide uninterrupted power supply.
(ii) To ensure data security.
(iii) To prevent system crashes due to electricity failure.
(iv) To provide protection against power surges.
(v) To protect data from corruption.
(vi) To keep the system running in case of an emergency.

Check the diagram below

The octal number system is based on the base 8 system, with the numbers 0 to 7 as its components, WHILE the binary number system is based on the base 2 system, with the numbers 0 and 1 as its components.

(i) Portrait Orientation
(ii) Landscape Orientation


High-level programming languages are languages designed to be more user-friendly and abstracted from the low-level details of the computer’s hardware. They offer more human-readable syntax and provide a higher level of abstraction, allowing programmers to write code that is easier to understand and maintain.


(i)Machine consists of binary code (0s and 1s) that directly represents instructions that a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) can execute. It is specific to the computer’s architecture. WHILE
Assembly Language uses mnemonic codes (short abbreviations) to represent the machine-level instructions. These mnemonics are more human-readable and are later translated into machine code by an assembler.

(ii)Machine Language is not easily readable by humans due to its binary nature. WHILE
Assembly Language is more readable than machine language since it uses mnemonics and symbolic names for operations and registers.

(iii)Machine Language Provides no abstractions and directly corresponds to hardware operations. WHILE
Assembly Language offers a slight level of abstraction by using mnemonics to represent operations.

(iv)Machine Language typically used by the computer’s CPU to execute instructions. WHILE Assembly Language used by programmers to write low-level code that’s more human-readable than machine code.

(v)Machine Language is the lowest level of programming, closest to the hardware. WHILE Assembly Language is a higher level than machine language but still considered low-level.

network interface: Network interface often referred to as a network interface card (NIC) or network adapter, is a hardware component that connects a computer or device to a network. It serves as the interface between the computer’s software and the physical network medium, enabling data to be transmitted and received over the network.

Network protocol: Network protocol is a set of rules and conventions that govern how data is exchanged and communicated between devices and systems in a network. It defines the format, structure, and sequence of messages or packets that are exchanged between devices to ensure proper communication.

Keyboard shortcut keys to switch between open Application

(a)Alt + Tab (on Windows): This allows you to cycle through open applications and switch to the one you want.

(a)Command + Tab (on macOS): Similar to Alt + Tab on Windows, this lets you switch between open applications.

Keyboard shortcut key to rename selected file

(a)F2 (on Windows): When a file is selected in Windows Explorer, pressing F2 allows you to quickly rename the file.

(b)Return (Enter) (on macOS): When a file is selected in Finder on macOS, pressing Return (Enter) allows you to edit the file name, effectively renaming it.


Integer: Integer is a whole number that does not have any fractional or decimal part. It can be either positive, negative, or zero. In data representation, integers are commonly stored using a fixed number of bits, where the bit pattern corresponds to the integer value according to a specific encoding scheme, such as two’s complement.

Floating Point Number: floating-point number, often simply referred to as a “float,” is a representation of a real number that can have both a whole number and a fractional part. In data representation, they are stored in a binary format using a sign bit, an exponent, and a fraction (also known as a significand or mantissa).

Hexadecimal number: 9AB

9 in hexadecimal = 1001 in binary.
A in hexadecimal = 1010 in binary.
B in hexadecimal = 1011 in binary.

So, the binary representation of 9AB is 10011010101011

Grouping in sets of three from right to left: 010 011 010 101 011

Converting each group to octal:

010 = 2 in octal
011 = 3 in octal
010 = 2 in octal
101 = 5 in octal
011 = 3 in octal

Therefore, the octal representation of the hexadecimal number 9AB is 23253.


10 LET sum = 0
20 FOR i = 1 TO 50 STEP 2
30 LET sum = sum + i * i
40 NEXT i
50 PRINT “Sum of squares of odd numbers between 1 and 50: “; sum



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