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Arteries of the human body

X1 – Temporal
X2 – Facial
X3 – Carotid
X4 – Brachial
X5 – Subclavian
X6 – Femoral

They are responsible for carrying oxygenated blood to the head and brain.

A phobia is an excessive and irrational fear or aversion towards a specific object situation or activity.



A – displaced fracture
B – Open and displaced fracture
C – Comminuted fracture
D – Transverse fracture
E – Basilar skull fracture
F – Buckled fracture

F – buckle fracture

(i) Immobilize the affected area: The first step is to immobilize the affected limb to prevent further injury. You can do this by using a splint or any other rigid object to keep the limb in place.
(ii) Apply ice to the affected area: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce pain and swelling. You can wrap ice in a towel and apply it to the affected area for 15-20 minutes at a time, several times a day.

(i) Red blood cells (RBCs): Carry oxygen to all tissues of the body.
(ii) White blood cells (WBCs): Fight against the germs that may enter into our body.
(iii) Lymphocytes: Regulation of the immune response.
(iv) Platelets: Blood clot

The pulmonary artery is the only deoxygenated blood-carrying artery.

(i) The pancreas produces insulin.
(ii) Diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from insufficient secretion of insulin.

(i) No pulse or heartbeat
(ii) No breathing
(iii) No response to stimuli

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A carrier is a person who has a gene for a particular trait or disease but does not show any symptoms of the disease. Carriers can pass the gene on to their children.


(i) Respiratory route: Pathogens can enter the body through the nose, mouth, or lungs when a person inhales contaminated air.
(ii) Digestive route: Pathogens can enter the body through the mouth when a person ingests contaminated food or water.
(iii) Skin contact: Pathogens can enter the body through the skin when a person comes into contact with contaminated surfaces or objects.


(i) Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones wears down over time.
(ii) Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks the joints, causing inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
(iii) Gout: A type of arthritis that occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joints, causing inflammation and pain.

Wisdom tooth.


A trace element is a mineral that is required by the body in small amounts, typically less than 100 milligrams per day. Trace elements are important for many biological functions, including enzyme activity, hormone production, and immune system function.

(i) Selenium: An essential trace element that is involved in antioxidant defense, thyroid hormone metabolism, and immune system function.
(ii) Zinc: A trace element that is involved in many biological processes, including protein synthesis, wound healing, and immune system function.

=Health maintenance nutrients=
(i) Vitamins
(ii) Minerals

=Energy-giving nutrients=
(i) Carbohydrates
(ii) Proteins
(iii) Fats

(i) Skipping meals: Skipping meals can lead to overeating later in the day and can cause fluctuations in blood sugar levels.
(ii) Eating too much fast food: Fast food is often high in calories, unhealthy fats, and sodium, which can contribute to weight gain, high blood pressure, and other health problems.

A nostrum is a medicine or treatment that is promoted as a cure-all or panacea, but has no scientific basis or evidence of effectiveness.



(i) Endomorph
(ii) Mesomorph
(iii) Ectomorph
(iv) Viscerotonic
(v) Somatotonic

The basic unit of society is the family.

(i) Nuclear family
(ii) Extended family
(iii) Single-parent family
(iv) Blended family
(v) Adoptive family
(vi) Same-sex family

Geneva Switzerland.

(i) Influenza (flu)
(ii) Tuberculosis (TB)
(iii) Malaria
(v) Measles
(vi) Hepatitis


(i) Increased risk of maternal and infant mortality.
(ii) Lack of education and opportunities for the mother.
(iii) Increased risk of poverty and social exclusion.

(i) STIs: Sexually Transmitted Infections.
(ii) HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
(iii) AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

A Health Agency is an organization or institution responsible for the provision of health services to a particular population or community. It could be a government agency or a non-governmental organization.


(i) Babies born to teenage mothers may face higher rates of low birth weight and developmental issues.
(ii) It often leads to educational disruption for the young mother.
(iii) Teenage mothers may face socio-economic challenges due to limited financial resources and social support.

STIs: Sexually Transmitted Infections
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

A Health Agency is an organization or entity that is responsible for promoting and safeguarding public health.



Answer three questions only


Health according to the World Health Organization (WHO is defined as a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

(i) Personal lifestyle choices such as diet physical activity tobacco and alcohol use and sexual practices can significantly impact health.
(ii) Factors like socioeconomic status education employment and social support systems play a vital role in health outcomes.
(iii) Physical Environment: The quality of air water and sanitation as well as the availability of healthcare facilities can influence the overall health of individuals.
(iv) Genetics and Biology: Genetic factors inherited traits and biological characteristics can have an impact on an individual’s susceptibility to certain diseases or conditions.

(i) Digestion: The small intestine receives partially digested food from the stomach and continues the process of breaking down complex food particles into smaller molecules. It utilizes enzymes produced by the pancreas and the small intestine itself to aid in the breakdown of proteins carbohydrates and fats.
(ii) Absorption: The inner lining of the small intestine contains numerous tiny finger-like projections called villi. These villi increase the surface area available for absorption. The small intestine absorbs most of the digested nutrients including glucose amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream.
(iii) Secretion: The small intestine secretes various enzymes mucus and hormones necessary for digestion and absorption. It releases digestive enzymes and bile into the small intestine to facilitate the breakdown of nutrients.


-Chemical Digestion-
(i) Involves the breakdown of complex food molecules into simpler forms through chemical reactions facilitated by enzymes.
(ii) Occurs primarily in the mouth (with saliva stomach and small intestine.
(iii) Examples of chemical digestion include the breakdown of proteins into amino acids carbohydrates into sugars and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
(iv) Requires the presence of specific enzymes for the breakdown of different types of nutrients.

-Mechanical Digestion-
(i) Involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller particles through chewing churning and mixing actions.
(ii) Occurs primarily in the mouth (with teeth stomach and small intestine.
(iii) Examples of mechanical digestion include chewing stomach contractions and the segmentation movement of the small intestine.
(iv) Relies on physical force such as teeth grinding stomach contractions and peristalsis to break down and mix the food.

(i) Ultrafiltration: Ultrafiltration is a vital process that occurs in the kidneys. It is the first step in urine formation and involves the filtration of blood through specialized filters known as glomeruli. The pressure of blood forces small molecules like water glucose amino acids salts and waste products to pass through the glomerular capillaries and enter the renal tubules. Larger molecules such as blood cells and proteins are retained in the bloodstream. This process ensures that only small molecules are filtered into the urine while important substances are reabsorbed later in the tubules.

(ii) Selective Reabsorption: Selective reabsorption occurs in the renal tubules of the kidneys. After the initial filtration process essential substances such as glucose amino acids water and salts are selectively reabsorbed into the bloodstream. This process helps maintain the body’s homeostasis by conserving valuable substances that the body needs rather than excreting them in the urine. The selective reabsorption process is regulated by specific transporters and hormones to ensure an appropriate balance of substances in the body.

(iii) Vasoconstriction: Vasoconstriction is the narrowing or constriction of blood vessels. It occurs when the smooth muscles around the blood vessels contract causing a decrease in their diameter. This constriction reduces blood flow and can be useful in certain situations such as during bleeding or when redirecting blood to specific areas of the body. Vasoconstriction is regulated by the nervous system and various hormones and plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure blood flow distribution and body temperature.


(i) Improved Physical Fitness: Regular exercise promotes cardiovascular health strengthens muscles and bones and enhances overall physical fitness. It increases stamina flexibility and strength making daily activities easier to perform. Exercise also helps maintain a healthy weight and improves body composition.
(ii) Mental Well-being: Exercise has a positive impact on mental health by reducing stress anxiety and symptoms of depression. It stimulates the release of endorphins which are natural mood-enhancing chemicals in the brain. Regular exercise can improve sleep quality boost self-esteem and contribute to a sense of overall well-being.
(iii) Disease Prevention: Engaging in regular exercise can significantly reduce the risk of developing various chronic diseases such as heart disease high blood pressure type 2 diabetes and obesity. Exercise improves cardiovascular health lowers blood cholesterol levels regulates blood sugar levels and helps maintain a healthy body weight. Additionally exercise can strengthen the immune system leading to a reduced risk of certain infections and illnesses.


-Anaerobic Respiration-
(i) Occurs in the absence of oxygen.
(ii) Yields a low amount of energy (ATP) compared to aerobic respiration.
(iii) Examples of products include lactate (in humans) or alcohol and carbon dioxide (in yeast).
(iv) Takes place in the cytoplasm of cells.

-Aerobic Respiration-
(i) Requires oxygen to occur.
(ii) Yields a high amount of energy (ATP) compared to anaerobic respiration.
(iii) Produces carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.
(iv) Takes place in the mitochondria of cells.

(i) Limited access to healthcare facilities: Lack of easily accessible healthcare facilities especially in rural areas can hinder the successful immunization of children. If healthcare centers are located far away or are not properly equipped it becomes difficult for parents to bring their children for immunization.
(ii) Lack of awareness and education: Insufficient knowledge and awareness about the importance of immunization can be a significant barrier. Parents who are not aware of the benefits and safety of vaccines may be hesitant to vaccinate their children or may have misconceptions about vaccines.
(iii) Socio-cultural beliefs and practices: Socio-cultural beliefs and practices can sometimes influence the acceptance or refusal of immunization. Certain cultural or religious beliefs may conflict with the concept of vaccination leading to skepticism or resistance.

(i) Measles
(ii) Polio
(iii) Tetanus
(iv) Hepatitis B
(v) Diphtheria
(vi) Influenza (Flu)


-Four Types of Cancer-
(i) Breast Cancer: Breast cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the breast grow and divide uncontrollably. It is the most common cancer among women globally.
(ii) Lung Cancer: Lung cancer develops when abnormal cells in the lungs multiply rapidly. It is primarily caused by tobacco smoke and it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.
(iii) Colorectal Cancer: Colorectal cancer affects the colon and rectum. It usually begins as a growth called a polyp which can become cancerous over time. Regular screening and early detection can significantly improve outcomes.
(iv) Prostate Cancer: Prostate cancer affects the prostate gland in men. It typically grows slowly and may not cause significant symptoms in the early stages. Regular prostate cancer screening is essential for early detection and better treatment options.

-Three Signs/Symptoms-
(i) Unexplained Weight Loss: Sudden and unintentional weight loss without changes in diet or physical activity can be a symptom of various types of cancer.
(ii) Fatigue: Persistent fatigue or exhaustion that does not improve with rest can be an early sign of cancer. It is a common symptom experienced by cancer patients.
(iii) Changes in the Skin: Skin changes such as the development of new moles changes in the color or size of existing moles or the appearance of sores that do not heal can signify certain types of skin cancer.

-Three Preventive Measures-
(i) Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthy lifestyle that includes a balanced diet regular exercise limited alcohol consumption and avoidance of tobacco products can help reduce the risk of certain cancers.
(ii) Vaccination: Vaccines such as the HPV vaccine against cervical cancer and the Hepatitis B vaccine help prevent infections associated with certain types of cancer.
(iii) Regular Screening: Regular cancer screenings such as mammograms for breast cancer Pap smears for cervical cancer and colonoscopies for colorectal cancer can help detect cancer at early stages when treatment outcomes are generally more favorable.

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy or slow down the growth of cancer cells. It works by targeting and killing rapidly dividing cells including cancer cells.

(i) Lack of Hygiene: Poor personal hygiene practices such as inadequate hand washing improper food handling and lack of sanitation facilities can facilitate the spread of diseases. Proper hygiene is essential in preventing the transmission of many infectious diseases.
(ii) Close Contact: Diseases can spread more easily when individuals are in close proximity to each other. The closer the contact the greater the risk of transmission. Examples include respiratory droplet transmission in conditions like influenza or direct contact transmission seen in sexually transmitted infections.
(iii) Weak Immune System: Individuals with weakened immune systems such as those with certain medical conditions or on immunosuppressive medications are more susceptible to infections. A weakened immune system makes it easier for pathogens to invade the body and cause diseases.
(iv) Environmental Factors: Environmental conditions can favor the spread of diseases. Factors such as poor air quality contaminated water sources overcrowded living conditions and exposure to vector-borne diseases (transmitted by insects like mosquitoes) can contribute to disease transmission.


A delinquent refers to a person typically a young individual who consistently engages in illegal or antisocial behavior.

(i) Theft or shoplifting
(ii) Vandalism
(iii) Drug abuse or drug dealing
(iv) Assault or violence
(v) Skipping school or chronic truancy

(i) Economic Burden: Alcoholism can have a significant impact on individuals families and society as a whole. The financial costs associated with alcoholism can be substantial and include medical expenses lost productivity legal fees and rehabilitation costs.
(ii) Social Dysfunction: Alcoholism often leads to social dysfunction and strained relationships. It can cause conflicts within families leading to domestic violence child neglect or abuse and marital issues. Alcoholics may experience difficulties in maintaining employment or face legal problems due to impaired judgment and behavior resulting from their addiction.
(iii) Stigma and Social Isolation: Alcoholism is often stigmatized in society leading to social ostracism and discrimination. Individuals struggling with alcoholism may face judgment ridicule and loss of social standing within their communities. This stigma can create barriers to seeking help as individuals may fear being labeled or judged.

Family planning refers to the practice of controlling the number and spacing of children in a family through the use of contraception or other methods.

(i) Calendar method: Tracking menstrual cycles to determine fertile days and avoiding intercourse during those times.
(ii) Basal body temperature method: Monitoring basal body temperature to identify the fertile period.
(iii) Cervical mucus method: Observing changes in cervical mucus consistency to determine fertility.

(i) Infancy
(ii) Childhood
(iii) Adolescence
(iv) Adulthood


Haemorrhage refers to the escape or loss of blood from the blood vessels typically due to injury ruptured blood vessels or underlying medical conditions.

(i) Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and towards the body’s tissues WHILE Veins on the other hand carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart.
(ii) Arteries generally carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood except for the pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs WHILE In contrast veins typically carry oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood except for the pulmonary veins that transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
(iii) Arteries typically lack valves since the pressure generated by the heart’s pumping action helps maintain blood flow in one direction WHILE Veins contain valves that help prevent the backward flow of blood. These valves ensure the unidirectional flow of blood towards the heart counteracting the effects of gravity.
(iv) Arteries tend to have a pulsating rhythmic blood flow due to the contraction of the heart leading to pressure surges. In contrast blood flow WHILE in veins is steady and slower aided by the contraction of surrounding muscles and the presence of valves.

(i) Disease Surveillance: Public Health Officers play a crucial role in monitoring the occurrence of diseases in a community. They collect analyze and interpret health data to identify emerging disease trends outbreaks and potential public health threats. This information helps in managing and preventing the spread of diseases.

(ii) Health Education and Promotion: Public Health Officers are responsible for designing and implementing health education campaigns to promote positive health behaviors and raise awareness about various health issues. They develop educational materials conduct workshops and engage with communities to foster healthier lifestyles.

(iii) Policy Development: Public Health Officers contribute to the development of public health policies and guidelines. They conduct research evaluate evidence-based interventions and make recommendations to policymakers to address population health concerns. They work closely with government agencies healthcare organizations and advocacy groups to shape health-related policies.

(iv) Emergency Preparedness and Response: Public Health Officers are actively involved in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies such as natural disasters disease outbreaks or bioterrorism incidents. They develop emergency response plans coordinate with various stakeholders and mobilize resources to effectively manage these situations and protect public health.

(v) Environmental Health Monitoring: Public Health Officers assess and monitor environmental conditions that can impact public health. They investigate and address issues like air and water quality hazardous waste management food safety occupational health and sanitation. They ensure regulatory compliance and take preventive measures to reduce environmental health risks.

(vi) Collaborations and Partnerships: Public Health Officers collaborate with multiple stakeholders including healthcare providers community organizations local authorities and international partners to address complex public health challenges. They establish partnerships to leverage resources share information and coordinate efforts to improve health outcomes in the community.

(i) Check for proper labeling including correct spelling and information about the manufacturer.
(ii) Verify the presence of a batch number and manufacturing/expiry date.
(iii) Look for tamper-evident packaging or seals that ensure the product has not been tampered with.
(iv) Purchase products from authorized retailers or pharmacies to ensure authenticity.

The full meaning of the acronym “NHIS” is the National Health Insurance Scheme.

(i) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
(ii) World Food Programme (WFP)
(iii) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
(iv) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
(v) National Institutes of Health (NIH)
(vi) Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders)