Answer four questions in all, two from each section


A Constitution can be defined as a written set of fundamental principles and rules that govern a country or organization. It establishes the framework for the organization’s structure powers and limitations as well as the rights and responsibilities of its citizens or members.

(i) Written Constitution: The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria is a written document that outlines the fundamental principles and rules guiding the governance of Nigeria.
(ii) Federalism: It establishes Nigeria as a federal republic with power shared between the central government and the states. It defines the powers and responsibilities of both levels of government.
(iii) Separation of Powers: The Constitution provides for the separation of powers among the three arms of government: the executive legislative and judicial branches. This ensures a system of checks and balances.
(iv) Fundamental Human Rights: The Constitution enshrines fundamental human rights and freedoms such as the right to life liberty and fair hearing. It sets out the framework for the protection and promotion of these rights.
(v) Citizenship: The Constitution defines who is considered a citizen of Nigeria and outlines their rights privileges and obligations.
(vi) Presidential System: The 1999 Constitution establishes a presidential system of government where the president is the head of state and head of government. It outlines the powers and functions of the president.
(vii) Amendment Process: The Constitution provides for its amendment outlining the procedures to be followed when changes are proposed. It requires a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly and state legislatures for amendments to take effect.

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(i) Strong Leadership: A strong and visionary leadership can play a pivotal role in promoting national unity by fostering a sense of identity and purpose among diverse groups of people.
(ii) Inclusive Governance: Ensuring inclusive governance where all ethnic religious and regional groups have a voice in decision-making processes can help bridge divides and promote unity.
(iii) Respect for Diversity: A society that values and respects diversity can foster a climate of acceptance and tolerance. Appreciating different cultures languages and beliefs can contribute to national unity.
(iv) Effective Communication: Open and transparent communication platforms can help promote dialogue and understanding among different groups. It allows for the exchange of ideas and perspectives promoting unity.
(v) Equal Opportunities: Providing equal opportunities in education employment and socioeconomic development can contribute to national unity by reducing social and economic disparities between different groups.
(vi) Shared National Identity: Promoting a shared national identity that transcends ethnic religious and regional differences can help forge a sense of belonging and unity among citizens.
(vii) Peaceful Coexistence: Ensuring peace security and stability within a country promotes national unity. Addressing and resolving conflicts peacefully and fostering a culture of dialogue can contribute to unity.


(i) Economic Development: Youth empowerment skills enable young people to acquire the knowledge and expertise needed to participate in the workforce and contribute to the country’s economic growth.
(ii) Reduced Unemployment: By equipping young people with marketable skills youth empowerment programs can help reduce the unemployment rate providing opportunities for self-employment and job creation.
(iii) Poverty Alleviation: Empowered youth can generate income for themselves and their families leading to poverty reduction and improved living conditions.
(iv) Entrepreneurship Promotion: Youth empowerment skills often include entrepreneurship training encouraging young people to start their own businesses and become self-reliant.
(v) Social Stability: When young people are engaged in meaningful activities and have access to opportunities it can reduce social unrest crime and anti-social behaviors contributing to social stability.
(vi) Skill Development: Empowerment programs focus on building practical skills that are essential for personal and professional growth. These skills can help young people adapt to a rapidly changing job market.
(vii) Civic Engagement and Leadership: Empowered youth are more likely to be actively engaged in their communities taking leadership roles and participating in decision-making processes ultimately contributing to the development of a stronger civil society.


Orderliness can be defined as a state or condition characterized by systematic arrangement and adherence to established rules and regulations. It implies a well-organized and structured environment where people act in a disciplined manner respecting authority and following established procedures.

(i) Traffic Rules: Obeying traffic rules and regulations such as stopping at red lights yielding to pedestrians and following speed limits contributes to orderliness on the roads.
(ii) Public Transportation: Queueing in an orderly manner at bus stops or train stations respecting line spaces and waiting for one’s turn to board public transportation helps maintain order and efficiency.
(iii) Law and Order: Adhering to laws respecting the authority of law enforcement agencies and cooperating with legal procedures contributes to maintaining order and justice within society.
(iv) Organized Events: Events that are well-planned and executed with clear directions designated areas and proper crowd management ensure orderliness and the safety of participants.
(v) Meeting Protocols: Orderliness is essential during meetings or gatherings to ensure effective communication and decision-making. Following meeting protocols such as having an agenda time management and giving each person an opportunity to speak helps maintain order and achieve objectives.
(vi) Law and Social Order: Upholding laws and regulations is vital for maintaining orderliness in society. The legal system ensures that individuals are held accountable for their actions and law enforcement agencies play a crucial role in ensuring social order and public safety.
(vii) Queueing: In various settings such as banks supermarkets or public transport stations orderliness is maintained through queueing systems. People form lines or queues and wait their turn ensuring fairness and efficiency in providing services.


Civic Education is the educational process that aims to develop and nurture the knowledge skills attitudes and values necessary for active and responsible citizenship. It provides individuals with an understanding of their rights responsibilities and participation in society and equips them with the tools to engage in effective civic action.

(i) Promoting active citizenship: Civic Education encourages individuals to actively participate in their communities and engage in democratic processes such as voting community service and advocacy. It instills a sense of responsibility and encourages individuals to make positive contributions to society.
(ii) Fostering social cohesion: Civic Education teaches tolerance respect and understanding of diverse cultures values and beliefs. It promotes inclusivity and helps to bridge social and cultural divides fostering a sense of unity among community members.
(iii) Enhancing critical thinking and decision-making skills: Civic Education equips individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to analyze societal issues evaluate different perspectives and make informed decisions. It encourages critical thinking problem-solving and the ability to engage in constructive dialogue with others.
(iv) Safeguarding democracy: Civic Education plays a crucial role in strengthening democratic values and institutions. It promotes an understanding of democratic principles such as rule of law human rights and social justice and helps individuals become active participants in shaping the democratic process. By educating citizens about their rights and the importance of democratic principles Civic Education helps to safeguard democracy.


Rule of law refers to the principle that all individuals and institutions are subject to and accountable to the law. It ensures that laws are applied equally and impartially without discrimination or favoritism. The rule of law establishes a framework for a just and fair society.

(i) Protection of individual rights: The rule of law safeguards the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals providing them with legal recourse in case of violations. It ensures that all individuals are treated equally under the law and protects them from arbitrary actions by the state or other individuals.
(ii) Promotion of justice and fairness: Rule of law ensures that legal processes and procedures are fair transparent and accessible to all. It establishes an impartial judiciary that interprets and applies the law objectively ensuring that justice is administered without bias or discrimination.
(iii) Prevention of abuse of power: Rule of law acts as a check on the abuse of power by those in authority. It establishes clear limitations on the actions of the government ensuring that it operates within the bounds of the law and respects the rights of citizens.
(iv) Economic stability and development: Rule of law provides a stable and predictable legal framework that is essential for economic growth and development. It protects property rights promotes contract enforcement and provides a conducive environment for business and investment.
(v) Social cohesion and trust: When the rule of law is upheld it promotes social cohesion and trust within a society. People feel secure in their rights and are more likely to trust institutions and engage in civic participation.
(vi) International standing: Countries that uphold the rule of law tend to have a stronger international standing. They are seen as reliable partners in trade investment and diplomacy and are more likely to attract foreign investment and cooperation.
(vii) Preserving order and stability: Rule of law ensures that society functions with order and stability. It provides a framework for resolving disputes preventing conflicts and maintaining peace within a society.

(i) Independent judiciary
(ii) Respect for human rights
(iii) Access to justice
(iv) Transparency and accountability


Representative democracy is a form of government where citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. These representatives are responsible for representing the interests and concerns of their constituents in the decision-making process.

(i) Elections
(ii) Separation of powers
(iii) Freedom of speech and expression
(iv) Protection of individual rights
(v) Pluralism and diversity

(i) Decision-making process: In direct democracy citizens participate directly in decision-making through popular votes referendums or initiatives. In contrast WHILE in indirect democracy citizens elect representatives who make decisions on their behalf.
(ii) Scope: Direct democracy is more suitable for small communities or issues of local concern where citizens can gather and participate directly WHILE Indirect democracy allows for larger-scale governance where representatives can effectively represent a larger population.
(iii) Efficiency: Direct democracy can be time-consuming and slower in reaching decisions due to the need for widespread citizen participation. WHILE Indirect democracy allows for more efficient decision-making due to the delegation of authority to elected representatives.
(iv) Expertise: Direct democracy relies on the collective judgment of citizens which may not always reflect the same level of expertise. WHILE In indirect democracy elected representatives can bring expertise and specialization to the decision-making process.
(v) Responsibility: In direct democracy citizens bear direct responsibility for decisions made collectively. WHILE In indirect democracy representatives are accountable to the citizens who elected them and can be held responsible for their decisions through periodic elections.
(vi) Protection of minority rights: Direct democracy without these safeguards can potentially lead to the tyranny of the majority where minority interests are overlooked. WHILE Indirect democracy incorporates institutional safeguards and checks and balances to protect minority rights.


Stigmatization refers to the process of labeling and discriminating against individuals or groups based on certain characteristics or attributes that are seen as deviating from societal norms. Stigmatization often results in negative stereotypes prejudices and social exclusion.

(i) social stigmatization
(ii) verbal stigmatization
(iii) Employment discrimination
(iv) Healthcare stigmatization
(v) Self stigmatization
(vi) Legal stigmatization

(i) Public education and awareness: Increasing public knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS through targeted campaigns educational programs and media can help dispel myths and misconceptions. It promotes understanding and reduces stigmatizing attitudes.
(ii) Promoting empathy and compassion: Encouraging empathy and compassion towards individuals living with HIV/AIDS can foster a supportive and inclusive society. By emphasizing shared humanity and challenging stereotypes people are more likely to show understanding and reduce stigmatizing behavior.
(iii)Empowering affected individuals: Empowering individuals living with HIV/AIDS to speak out share their stories and advocate for their rights helps to challenge stigmatization. By promoting self-advocacy and providing support networks affected individuals can regain control and counteract stigma.
(iv) Legal protection: Enacting and enforcing laws that protect individuals living with HIV/AIDS from discrimination and stigmatization is essential. These laws should address employment healthcare education housing and other areas where discrimination may occur.
(v) Engaging communities and key stakeholders: Collaborating with community leaders healthcare providers educators and other stakeholders can help to address HIV-related stigma at the grassroots level. By involving multiple sectors and promoting dialogue attitudes can be changed and stigmatization reduced.
(vi) Counseling and psychosocial support: Providing counseling services and psychosocial support to individuals living with HIV/AIDS contributes to their emotional well-being and resilience. Support groups and counseling sessions can help individuals cope with stigma build self-esteem and develop strategies to navigate societal challenges.



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