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(i) Environmental Protection: Land use legislation aims to preserve and protect the environment by regulating activities such as deforestation pollution and land degradation.
(ii) Sustainable and Planned Development: The government enforces land use legislation to ensure that development occurs in a strategic and organized manner promoting sustainable growth and preventing haphazard urbanization.
(iii) Public Health and Safety: Legislation helps in preventing the establishment of hazardous industries near residential areas ensuring public health and safety.
(iv) Resource Management: Land use legislation helps in managing and conserving natural resources such as water minerals forests and agricultural lands.
(v) Preservation of Cultural and Historical Heritage: Legislation can protect culturally significant areas or historical landmarks from being destroyed or altered.
(vi) Conflict Resolution: Land use legislation can help resolve conflicts arising from competing land use interests ensuring fair allocation and use of land resources.

(i) Education and Training: NGOs provide training and awareness programs to beekeepers equipping them with knowledge and skills to improve beekeeping practices.
(ii) Capacity Building: NGOs offer technical assistance and support to beekeepers helping them enhance their knowledge of beekeeping techniques hive management and honey production.
(iii) Infrastructure Development: NGOs may help develop beekeeping infrastructure such as apiaries honey processing facilities and storage units to improve production and enhance value chain efficiency.
(iv) Market Access: NGOs assist beekeepers in accessing local and international markets for their bee products facilitating trade and boosting income generation.
(v) Policy Advocacy: NGOs advocate for supportive policies and regulations that promote sustainable beekeeping practices and protect bee habitats.
(vi) Research and Development: NGOs contribute to research efforts related to beekeeping bee diseases and honey production technologies providing valuable scientific knowledge to enhance productivity and sustainability.

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(i) Root Extraction
(ii) Lesser Soil Disturbance
(iii) Cost and Efficiency
(iv) Selective Clearing
(v) Environmental Impact
(vi) Reusability

(i) Accessibility
(ii) Topography
(iii) Soil Fertility
(iv) Security
(v) Livestock Management
(vi) Future Expansion


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(i) By Improving crop varieties
(ii) Mechanization
(iii) Precision agriculture
(iv) Irrigation systems
(v) Pest and disease management
(vi) Post-harvest technologies .

(i) Climate constraints
(ii) Limited grazing land
(iii) Disease prevalence
(iv):Inadequate veterinary services
(v) Limited access to improved breeds
(vi) Socio-cultural factors

(i) Planning helps in selecting suitable land for farming based on factors such as soil type topography drainage and accessibility. This ensures that the farmland is suited for the specific type of crops or livestock to be raised.
(ii) Planning helps maximize land-use efficiency by determining the layout and design of fields pastures or livestock housing structures. It ensures proper zoning and allocation of different areas for various farming activities to optimize space and resources.
(iii) Planning allows for proper soil preparation techniques including soil testing soil amendment and land leveling. These steps help create an ideal growing environment by addressing soil fertility pH levels and water drainage.
(iv) Planning helps identify the need for and placement of essential infrastructure such as irrigation systems fencing drainage channels and access roads. This ensures efficient operations and easy movement of machinery livestock and personnel.
(v) Planning enables the efficient utilization of resources such as water fertilizers and energy. It helps in determining the right amount and timing of resource application reducing wastage and increasing productivity.
(vi) Planning takes into account environmental factors and focuses on sustainable farming practices. It can include measures to prevent soil erosion conserve water minimize chemical use and promote biodiversity. This contributes to long-term farm viability and protects the ecosystem.

(i) Wind-powered water pumping
(ii) Wind-driven aerators
(iii) Wind energy for electricity generation
(iv) Wind-powered grain drying
(v) Windbreak structures
(vi) Wind energy for livestock operations


(i) Diversity: Rotate crops with different families or characteristics to prevent the buildup of pests and diseases specific to certain plants.
(ii) Nutrient Cycling: Different crops have different nutrient requirements and nutrient uptake patterns. Rotating crops helps in balancing and replenishing soil nutrients.
(iii) Pest and Disease Management: Crop rotation interrupts pest and disease life cycles reducing their buildup and decreasing reliance on chemical controls.
(iv) Weed Control: Alternating crops with different weed control strategies helps in managing weed populations and reducing herbicide use.
(v) Soil Health Improvement: Crop rotation diversifies the root system improving soil structure organic matter content and overall soil fertility.
(vi) Economic Sustainability: Crop rotation helps in spreading out risks and optimizing the use of resources leading to more sustainable and profitable agricultural practices.

-Commensalism and Symbiosis-
(i) Commensalism: This is an association where one organism benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
(ii) Symbiosis: Symbiosis refers to a close and long-term association between two different species where both organisms benefit.

-Predation and Parasitism-
(i) Predation: Predation is a relationship in which an organism (predator) kills and consumes another organism (prey) for food.
(ii) Parasitism: Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism (parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism (host) by obtaining nutrients or shelter from the host.

(i) Soil Structure Improvement
(ii) Nutrient Release
(iii) Erosion Control
(iv) Heat Regulation
(v) Microhabitat Creation
(vi) Aesthetics

(i) Irrigation supplies water to crops during dry periods ensuring adequate moisture for optimal growth and higher crop yields.
(ii) Irrigation allows farmers to control the timing and amount of water applied ensuring efficient water use and reducing water stress on plants.
(iii) During droughts or water scarcity irrigation can help maintain crop production by providing supplementary water.
(iv) Irrigation can be used to leach excess salts from the soil preventing soil salinization and enhancing overall soil fertility.
(v) With irrigation farmers have the freedom to cultivate a wider range of crops that may require more water or are not suited to rain-fed conditions.
(vi) Irrigation can enable farmers to grow crops outside their natural growing season extending the production period and increasing profitability.


Soil pollution refers to the contamination of soil with harmful substances that adversely affect its quality and productivity. It is usually caused by the release of pollutants into the soil through human activities such as industrial operations improper waste disposal and the use of pesticides and fertilizers.

(i) Implementing proper waste management practices
(ii) Promoting sustainable agriculture
(iii) Installing wastewater treatment systems
(iv) Implementing stricter regulations
(v) Encouraging the use of environmentally friendly products
(vi) Creating awareness and education

(i) Sample collection: Collect representative soil samples from the area of interest using appropriate sampling techniques and tools.
(ii) Sample preparation: Clean the soil samples by removing debris stones and other impurities. Air-dry the samples and crush them to a uniform particle size.
(iii) Extraction of nutrients: Extract the plant-available nutrients from the soil using suitable extraction solutions such as a dilute acid or salt solution. This process helps to determine nutrient concentrations in the soil.
(iv) Analysis and interpretation: Analyze the extracts using appropriate laboratory techniques such as spectrophotometry or titration to determine nutrient concentrations. Interpret the results to assess nutrient availability and soil fertility status.

(i) Prevents waterlogging
(ii) Enhances aeration
(iii) Reduces erosion (iv) Improves soil structure
(v) Prevents nutrient leaching
(vi) Minimizes disease incidence

(i) Loss of water resources
(ii) Soil erosion
(iii) Cost and maintenance
(iv) Environmental impact
(v) Disruption of natural habitats
(vi) Unintended consequences


Given: Survey plan area = 1.960 cm²
1 square meter = 10000 square centimeters
Therefore 1.960 cm² = 1.960 / 10000 = 0.000196 square meters
So the area of the farm land is 0.000196 square meters.

Number of mounds = Area of farm land / Area covered by one mound
Number of mounds = 0.000196 square meters / 2 square meters
Number of mounds = 0.000196 / 2 = 0.000098 mounds
So approximately 0.000098 mounds can be made on the farm land.

To calculate the total number of setts needed for planting on the mounds we need to consider the seed rate of 5000 setts per hectare.

One hectare = 10000 square meters
Number of setts needed = (Area of farm land in square meters / One hectare) × Seed rate
Number of setts needed = (0.000196 square meters / 10000 square meters) × 5000 setts/ha
Number of setts needed = 0.0000000196 × 5000 = 0.098 setts
So approximately 0.098 setts will be required.

(i) Intercropping
(ii) Crop rotation
(iii) Alley cropping

(i) Soil conservation
(ii) Nutrient cycling
(iii) Shade and microclimate regulation
(iv) Windbreaks
(v) Wildlife habitat
(vi) Agroforestry products

(i) Witchgrass (Panicum capillare)
(ii) Squirting cucumber (Ecballium elaterium)
(iii) Shepard’s Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
(iv) Hairy Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta)
(v) Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)
(vi) Mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)


(i) Moisture conservation: mulching helps to retain soil moisture by reducing evaporation keeping the soil consistently moist which is important for yam growth and development.
(ii) Weed suppression: mulching helps to suppress weed growth by blocking sunlight and preventing weed seeds from germinating.
(iii) Temperature regulation: mulching acts as an insulating layer protecting the yam plants and tubers from extreme temperature fluctuations.
(iv) Soil erosion prevention: mulching helps to cover the soil surface reducing the impact of raindrops and preventing soil erosion which is crucial for maintaining the soil structure and preventing nutrient loss.

(i) Plant support: Staking provides support for yam vines which are climbing plants. It helps prevent the vines from trailing on the ground reducing the risk of diseases damage and pest infestation.
(ii) Improved aeration: By elevating the vine off the ground staking promotes better air circulation around the plant reducing the chances of fungal infections.
(iii) Easy harvest: Staked yam plants are easier to manage during harvest. The tubers are more accessible and can be harvested with minimal damage.
(iv) Space optimization: Staking allows for vertical growth maximizing the use of space and increasing the overall yield per unit area.

(i) Directional growth: Training the yam vines helps guide their growth in a specific direction preventing them from entangling with other plants or interfering with each other’s access to sunlight.
(ii) Improved sunlight exposure: Training the vine allows for better exposure to sunlight ensuring optimal photosynthesis and maximizing plant growth.
(iii) Enhanced nutrient uptake: By training the vines they can be positioned closer to nutrient-rich soil increasing their ability to absorb and utilize essential nutrients for better plant development.
(iv) Disease management: Training the yam vine helps create an efficient and organized planting arrangement facilitating disease monitoring and control measures.

(i) Elephant grass – Pennisetum purpureum
(ii) Carpet grass – Axonopus fissifolius
(iii) Stylo – Stylosanthes guianensis
(iv) Puero – Pueraria phaseoloides

(i) Some weeds such as legumes have nitrogen-fixing abilities enriching the soil with nitrogen and improving its fertility.
(ii) Weeds with dense foliage and extensive root systems help bind the soil preventing erosion caused by wind and water.
(iii) Weeds provide habitats and food sources for beneficial insects and wildlife promoting biodiversity on the farm.
(iv) Certain weed species can indicate specific soil conditions such as nutrient deficiencies or soil compaction assisting farmers in identifying and addressing underlying soil issues.
(v) Some weeds attract beneficial insects that help control pests on the farm acting as a form of natural pest management.
(vi) Weeds can be utilized as a source of organic matter for composting or as fodder for livestock contributing to sustainable farming practices.

Area of the farmland:
Area = Length × Width
Area = 60m × 30m
Area = 1800 square meters

Plant population in the farmland:
Spacing = 30cm × 30cm
Spacing = 0.3m × 0.3m
Number of plants in 1 square meter = (1m ÷ 0.3m) × (1m ÷ 0.3m)
Number of plants in 1 square meter ≈ 11.11
Total plant population = Area × Number of plants in 1 square meter
Total plant population = 1800 square meters × 11.11 plants/square meter
Total plant population ≈ 19998 plants


(i) Genetic qualities: Look for rabbits with good genetic traits such as high fertility high growth rates and disease resistance. Breeding animals with desirable traits will help improve the overall quality of the offspring.
(ii) Health and fitness: Select rabbits that are healthy free from any genetic disorders and have good overall physical condition. This ensures that the offspring will have a better chance of being healthy and thriving.
(iii) Temperament: Choose rabbits with a calm and friendly temperament. This will make handling and management easier as well as contribute to better overall welfare.
(iv) Productivity: Consider the productivity of the rabbits such as their ability to reproduce and raise litters successfully. Look for rabbits with a history of good mothering skills and high milk production.
(v) Conformation: Evaluate rabbits for proper conformation including body shape posture and proportions. Rabbits with good conformation are more likely to have better reproductive success and overall health.
(vi) Diversity: Avoid inbreeding by selecting breeding rabbits from different bloodlines. This helps maintain genetic diversity which can contribute to stronger and healthier offspring.

(i) Temperature control
(ii) Humidity control
(iii) Egg turning
(iv) Ventilation
(v) Egg monitoring
(vi) Egg handling

(i) Temperature
(ii) Diet
(iii) Physiological state
(iv) Activity level

(i) Amylase
(ii) Proteases
(iii) Lipase
(iv) Nucleases


(i) Blood carries nutrients and oxygen from the digestive system and lungs to various tissues and organs of the body ensuring proper nutrition and oxygenation.
(ii) Blood carries metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea to organs like the lungs and kidneys for elimination from the body.
(iii) Blood contains white blood cells that help in fighting against diseases and infections by identifying and destroying pathogens.
(iv) Blood plays a role in maintaining the body’s temperature through heat distribution throughout the body and heat exchange with the environment.

(i) Hides are used to produce high-quality leather which is used in the manufacturing of shoes belts bags and various other leather products.
(ii) Hides can be used in meat processing such as in the production of gelatin and edible collagen.
(iii) Hides of certain animals like fur-bearing animals are used in the production of fur garments and accessories.
(iv) Hides can be exported and traded internationally contributing to the economy.

(i) Eggs are a significant source of protein and other essential nutrients making them a valuable part of human diet.
(ii) Eggs are used in various food products such as baking confectionery and pasta production.
(iii) Eggs can be exported and traded locally and internationally providing opportunities for economic growth.
(vi) Eggshells can be used in various applications such as for calcium supplements fertilizer production and even in waste treatment processes.

(i) Tails of certain animals like cows and pigs are used in recipes to add flavor and richness to dishes such as in soups and stews.
(ii) Animal tails can be used in the production of pet food or treats providing a source of nutrition for animals.
(iii) Traditional Medicine: Tails of certain animals have been used in traditional medicine for their perceived health benefits.
(iv) Tails can be used in the manufacturing of products like brushes ornaments and even fashion accessories.

-One function-
(i) Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are responsible for regulating the body’s metabolism and growth.

-One deficiency symptom-
(i) Iodine deficiency can lead to the development of a condition called goiter where the thyroid gland becomes enlarged. Other symptoms may include hypothyroidism impaired mental development and decreased fertility.

-One function-
(i) Magnesium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as muscle and nerve function DNA synthesis energy production and maintaining normal heart rhythm.

-One deficiency symptom-
(i) Magnesium deficiency can lead to symptoms such as muscle cramps tremors weakness fatigue abnormal heart rhythms and calcium and potassium imbalances.

-One function-
(i) Calcium is vital for the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. It also plays a role in muscle function nerve transmission and enzymatic reactions within the body.

-One deficiency symptom-
(i) Calcium deficiency can result in weakened bones and teeth leading to conditions like osteoporosis and dental problems.


To calculate the number of days it took for the work to be done in 2017:
In 2015, six labourers completed the work in ten days. Let’s assume that the total work required to prepare the farmland is “W” units.
Work done in 2015 = W units
Number of labourers in 2015 = 6
Number of days in 2015 = 10
In 2017, only four labourers were available. Let’s assume the number of days it took to complete the work in 2017 is “d” days.
Work done in 2017 = W units
Number of labourers in 2017 = 4
Number of days in 2017 = t (to be determined)

Now, we know that the amount of work done in both years is the same (W units). Therefore, we can set up the following equation based on the work equation:
Work done in 2015 = Work done in 2017
6 labourers x 10 days = 4 labourers x d days
Now, solve for “d”:
6 x 10 = 4 x d
60 = 4d
d = 60 / 4
d = 15
Therefore, it took 15 days for the work to be done in 2017.
If 4 people worked together for 15 days, we can calculate the total work done in terms of man-days as:
Total work done = Number of people x Number of days
Total work done = 4 people x 15 days
Total work done = 60 man-days

So, if 4 people worked together for 15 days, the total work completed would be 60 man-days.

(i) Family Labor
(ii) Hired or paid labour

(i) Labour Attendance Record
(ii) Labour Wage and Payment Record
(iii) Work Done Record
(iv) Safety and Health Record

(i) Wholesalers
(ii) Retailers
(iii) producers
(iv) cooperative societies

(i) Limited access to modern equipment and resources in rural areas hinder exytension workers in promoting new agricultural technologies or practices
(ii) High level of illiteracy among farmers may slow down the rate of adoption of new innovations
(iii) Poor infrastructure, such as bad roads and limited transportation, can hinder extension workers’ mobility and accessibility to remote rural communities.
(iv) Unfavourable attitude of rural farmers toward government programmes, makes adoption of new innovations difficult.
(v) Language barrier leads to improper dissemination of new innovations
(vi) Inadequate resources such as finance and materials tend to hinder his performance.


Scale of preference refers to a ranking or order of individuals’ preferences for different goods and services. It represents the way people make choices based on their desires and needs, given their limited resources or income. In essence, individuals assign relative importance to various options and make decisions to maximize their utility or satisfaction.

To calculate the elasticity of demand, we use the formula:
Elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded / Percentage change in price

Given data:
Quantity demanded in 2012 (Q1) = 59,800 grape fruits
Price in 2012 (P1) = N450 per basket
Quantity demanded in 2018 (Q2) = 28,500 grape fruits
Price in 2018 (P2) = N750 per basket
Now, calculate the percentage change in quantity demanded:
Percentage change in quantity demanded = (Q2 – Q1) / Q1) x 100
Percentage change in quantity demanded = (28,500 – 59,800) / 59,800) x 100
= -31,300/59,800 x 100
= -0.52 x 100
= -52
Percentage change in quantity demanded ≈ -52%
Next, calculate the percentage change in price:
Percentage change in price = ((P2 – P1) / P1) x 100
Percentage change in price = ((750 – 450) / 450) x 100
= 300/450 x 100
= 0.67 x 100
= 67
Percentage change in price = 67%

Now, calculate the elasticity of demand:
Elasticity of demand ≈ (-52% / 67%) = -0.76

The demand for grape fruits is inelastic. This is because the calculated elasticity of demand (-0.76) is less than 1.

(i) Price of Substitutes
(ii) Consumer Income
(iii) Consumer Preferences and Tastes

(i) Sales Record
(ii) Inventory Record

(i) Visual Learning: Demonstrations offer a visual learning experience, making it easier for the audience to understand complex concepts and techniques through practical examples.

(ii) Active Participation: Demonstrations encourage active participation, allowing the audience to engage directly in the learning process by observing and performing tasks.
(iii) Practical Skills Development: Participants can learn and practice specific skills in real-time, enhancing their competency and confidence in applying the knowledge in their own settings.
(iv) Better Retention: Visual and hands-on learning experiences are known to improve information retention, as participants can see and experience the subject matter firsthand.
(v) Problem-Solving Opportunities: Demonstrations provide opportunities for participants to observe problem-solving techniques and responses to challenges, which they can apply in similar situations.
(vi) Addressing Language Barriers: Demonstrations can transcend language barriers, as they rely more on visual cues and actions rather than verbal communication, making them suitable for diverse audiences.


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