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Specimen A – Watering can
Specimen B – plier
Specimen C – Knapsack sprayer

(i) A watering can is typically a small handheld container with a spout for pouring water while a knapsack sprayer is a backpack-like device with a larger capacity for holding liquid and a spraying mechanism.
(ii) A watering can relies on gravity to pour water while a knapsack sprayer uses either manual pumping or a motorized mechanism to create pressure for spraying the liquid.
(iii) A watering can is used for precisely pouring water onto specific plants or areas while a knapsack sprayer is used to spray liquid over a larger area ensuring even coverage.
(iv) A watering can is mainly used for watering plants while a knapsack sprayer can be used for multiple purposes such as applying pesticides fertilizers or herbicides.

(i) Watering plants in gardens or pots.
(ii) Providing a controlled and targeted water supply to seedlings and delicate plants.
(iii) Transporting water for indoor or outdoor plants.
(iv) Can be used for decorative purposes like pouring water into a fountain.

(i) Gripping and holding objects firmly.
(ii) Bending or twisting wires and other materials.
(iii) Cutting through wires or thin metal.
(iv) Can be used as a multifunctional tool in various industries including electrical work plumbing and mechanical repairs.

(i) Read and understand the instructions and safety guidelines provided by the manufacturer.
(ii) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves goggles and a mask.
(iii) Calibrate the sprayer to ensure the correct dilution ratio and application rate of the liquid being sprayed.
(iv) Inspect the sprayer for any leaks damaged parts or clogs before use. Clean and maintain the sprayer regularly to ensure its proper functioning.

(i) Regular maintenance and cleaning can prevent rust corrosion or damage increasing the lifespan of the tools.
(ii) Well-maintained tools function optimally increasing productivity and reducing effort or time required to complete tasks.
(iii) Regular maintenance ensures that the tools are safe to use reducing the risk of accidents or injuries.

(iv) Proper maintenance can reduce the need for repairs or replacements saving money in the long run.

Specimen D – litmus paper
Specimen E – cow dungs
Specimen F – limestone
Specimen G – clayey soil (powdery form)

(i) Preparation: Take a small sample of the clayey soil and mix it with distilled water to create a clay-water mixture.
(ii) Testing: Dip the litmus paper into the clay-water mixture and observe the color change. Blue litmus paper turns red in acidic conditions while red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline conditions. The observed color change indicates the pH level of the soil.

(i) Organic matter and nutrient supply
(ii) Improved soil structure
(iii) Enhanced microbial activity
(iv) Increased moisture retention
(v) Weed suppression:
(vi) pH balance

(i) Particle size
(ii) Texture
(iii) Water holding capacity
(iv) Plasticity
(v) Stickiness
(vi) Low permeability

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(i) pH adjustment: Limestone is commonly used to neutralize acidic soils by raising the pH level making the soil more suitable for plant growth.
(ii) Soil remineralization: Limestone contains essential minerals such as calcium and magnesium which can be added to the soil to replenish nutrient levels.
(iii) Improving soil structure: Limestone helps improve soil structure by reducing compaction and increasing water infiltration.
(iv) Buffering capacity: Limestone has a buffering capacity meaning it helps maintain a stable pH level in the soil reducing pH fluctuations.
(v) Fertilizer filler: Limestone is sometimes used as a filler in fertilizers to provide additional nutrients and improve their spreadability.

(vi) Livestock feed supplement: Limestone is added to livestock feed to provide calcium and promote healthy bone development in animals.

Specimen H – yam tuber
Specimen I – casava tuber
Specimen J – orange fruit

(i) Minisetts or seed yams
(ii) Whole yam tubers
(iii) Vine cuttings
(iv) Tissue culture plantlets

Minisetts: Minisetts are small sections of yam tubers that contain one or two buds. These minisetts are planted directly into the soil and each bud is capable of producing a new yam plant.

(i) Cassava mosaic disease (CMD)
(ii) Cassava bacterial blight (CBB)
(iii) Cassava anthracnose disease (CAD)
(iv) Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD)

(i) Cassava flour
(ii) Cassava starch
(iii) Tapioca pearls
(iv) Cassava chips

(i) Sweet potatoes
(ii) Potatoes
(iii) Taro
(iv) Jerusalem artichokes

(i) Hilling up
(ii) weed control

(i) Citrus psyllids
(ii) Scales
(iii) Thrips
(iv) Citrus peelminer

(v) Fruit flies

Specimen K – groundnut cake
Specimen L – hide and skin
Specimen M – digestive tract of a bird

(i) Curing and Inedible Tissue Removal
(ii) Tanning

(i) Leather Production
(ii) By-product Utilization
(iii) Export Potential
(iv) Job Creation
(v) Agricultural Diversification
(vi) Environmental Sustainability

(i) Beak
(ii) Esophagus
(iii) Crop
(iv) Proventriculus
(v) Gizzard
(vi) Intestine

(i) Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
(ii) Newcastle Disease
(iii) Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro Disease)
(iv) Duck Virus Enteritis

(i) Groundnut cake is a rich source of protein
(ii) Groundnut cake contains a significant amount of oil and fat which provides energy to animals.
(iii) Groundnut cake has a good taste and odor making it attractive to animals. This helps encourage feed intake and ensures animals consume a balanced diet.
(iv) Groundnut cake is often readily available and relatively affordable compared to other protein sources. Its use in animal feed can help reduce production costs without compromising nutritional needs.
(v) Groundnut cake contains essential nutrients including amino acids vitamins and minerals that contribute to a well-balanced diet for animals.

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