(i) Fishing nets
(ii) Fishing lines
(iii) Fishing traps
(iv) Fishing hooks
(v) Fishing spears
(vi) Fishing harpoons
(vii) Fishing seines

(i) Ensure the water quality is suitable for the fingerlings, including temperature, oxygen levels, and pH.
(ii) Quarantine the fingerlings before introducing them to the main fish population to prevent the spread of diseases or parasites.
(iii) Handle the fingerlings carefully to minimize stress and injuries during the stocking process.
(iv) Gradually acclimate the fingerlings to the new water environment by adjusting the temperature and gradually introducing them to the water.
(v) Monitor the fingerlings closely after stocking to ensure they are adapting well and provide appropriate feed and nutrition.

(i) Maintaining optimal water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, pH, and ammonia levels.
(ii) Providing appropriate and nutritious feed for the fry, such as microalgae or finely ground commercial fish feed.
(iii) Regular monitoring of water quality parameters and adjusting them as needed.
(iv) Maintaining a suitable stocking density to prevent overcrowding and competition for resources.
(v) Regular cleaning and maintenance of the nursery tank to remove excess waste and prevent the build-up of harmful bacteria or toxins.
(vi) Implementing a proper lighting regime to simulate day and night cycles, which helps regulate the fry’s behavior and growth.
(vii) Regularly grading or sorting the fry based on size to minimize size-related competition and ensure uniform growth.
(viii) Minimizing stress on the fry by avoiding sudden changes in water parameters or handling them gently during any necessary transfers or procedures.

(i) Fishermen
(ii) Wholesalers
(iii) Retailers



Fish pond fertilization refers to the practice of adding nutrients to a fish pond to enhance the growth of phytoplankton and zooplankton, which serve as a natural food source for fish.


Fish pond fertilization is addition of nutrients to enhance plankton growth, promoting a healthy food chain, and increasing fish production in aquaculture systems.

(i) It is essential to assess the existing water quality in the pond before applying any fertilizers.
(ii) The size and depth of the pond play a role in determining the amount of fertilizer needed.
(iii) The number of fish stocked in the pond is a critical consideration.
(iv) It is important to select a suitable type of fertilizer that provides the necessary nutrients for the pond and the fish.
(v) Fish farmers should consider the potential environmental impact of fertilizers on the surrounding ecosystem.

(i) Low levels of dissolved oxygen can lead to increased stress among fish.
(ii) It limit their ability to efficiently convert food into energy, resulting in slower growth rates.
(iii) Low dissolved oxygen can cause fish to exhibit abnormal behavior.
(iv) Low dissolved oxygen can contribute to the increase of harmful algal blooms.
(v) It can lead to disturbed aquatic ecosystem

(i) It allows for better distribution of nutrients from uneaten feed and fish accumulated waste throughout the pond, benefiting the overall ecosystem and promoting natural nutrient cycling.
(ii) Allowing some time between feeding and water drainage helps maintain more stable water conditions

(i) Inshore fisheries
(ii) Offshore fisheries
(iii) Deep-sea fisheries

(i) Natural water sources
(ii) Rainwater
(iii) Groundwater
(iv) Surface runoff
(v) Irrigation canals
(vi) Water reservoirs


(i) Pond seining
(ii) Cast netting
(iii) Gill netting
(iv) Hand netting

(i) Gutting
(ii) Filleting
(iii) Drying
(iv) Smoking
(v) Canning
(vi) Freezing

(i) Salting
(ii) Drying
(iii) Smoking
(iv) Fermentation

(i) Refrigeration
(ii) Vacuum packing
(iii) Chemical preservatives
(iv) Irradiation
(v) High-pressure processing

(i) Poor water quality, such as high levels of ammonia, nitrites, or low dissolved oxygen can kill fish fry.
(ii) Change in temperature can shock fish fry and potentially cause death.
(iii) Predation by larger fish, birds, or other aquatic organisms.
(iv) Diseases and parasitic infections which can lead to death.
(v) Inadequate feeding practices can result in malnutrition leading to increased mortality.

Algal bloom in fisheries refers to excessive growth of algae in water due to human activities, impacting fish populations through toxins, oxygen depletion, and disruption of the food web.


Algal bloom refers to the rapid and excessive growth of algae in bodies of water, such as oceans, lakes, or rivers.


(i) Poor smoking techniques, improper drying, inadequate packaging, or contamination can lead to reduced product quality, making it difficult to sell at desired prices or meet consumer expectations.
(ii) Insects and pests can infest stored smoked-dried clarias, causing damage and reducing the overall market value
(iii) Inadequate drying or packaging techniques can result in smoked-dried clarias retaining moisture which leads to spoilage, mold growth, and a shorter shelf life, resulting in economic losses
(iv) Inappropriate storage conditions can lead to quality deterioration, spoilage, or rancidity, causing economic losses.
(v) Inefficient packaging can result in product damage, contamination, or a shorter shelf life, leading to economic losses.
(vi) If there is a lack of demand for smoked-dried clarias, oversupply in the market, or if the product is priced too high compared to market competition, it can result in slow sales or reduced profitability for sellers, leading to economic losses.

(i) Adding agricultural lime or dolomite to the water to increase its alkalinity
(ii) Installing aeration devices to increase oxygen levels in the water
(iii) Changing the water more frequently to dilute the acidic components
(iv) Avoiding the use of acid-based fertilizers near the pond area
(v) Adding crushed oyster shells or coral to the pond to increase alkalinity
(vi) Monitoring and adjusting the water chemistry regularly to maintain optimal conditions

(i) Agricultural lime
(ii) Dolomite
(iii) Ash from wood or rice husks
(iv) Crushed coral or shell
(vi) Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
(vi) Calcium carbonate (chalk or limestone)

To calculate the quantity required for the pond, we need to convert the pond size to hectares.

Pond size: 10 m x 20 m x 1.5 m = 300 cubic meters
1 hectare = 10,000 square meters

Area of the pond = length x breadth = 10 m x 20 m = 200 square meters
Quantity required = (200/10,000) x 2,000 kg = 40 kg

Therefore, the farmer would require 40 kg of the substance to improve the water in the pond.

To calculate the quantity of fish required to be stocked in the pond:

Pond size: 10 m x 20 m = 200 square meters
Quantity of fish = Stocking rate x Pond area = 10 fish/m x 200 m^2 = 2000 fish

Therefore, the quantity of fish required to be stocked in the pond is 2000 fish.

(i) Catfish
(ii) Tilapia
(iii) African bonytongue
(iv) Giant freshwater prawn
(v) Nile perch
(vi) Heteroclarias

(i) Secchi Disc: Water transparency or clarity
(ii) Thermometer: Water temperature.

2023 WAEC FISHERIES Objective