Instruction: 2023 Questions and answers are below the specimen. Always refresh the page.


SC 2023
West African Senlor School Certificate Examination (WASSCE)
for School Candidates, 2023
Instructions to Supervisors
Great care should be taken to ensure that the information given below does not reach the candidates either directly or indirectly.
After consultation, this document should be kept under lock and
key until the day of the examination.

2. (a) The provision of specimens, materials and equipment for
the test is your responsibility.
(b) (a) Where a specimen is not readily available in suficient quantity, it should be shared between small groups of candidates.

(m) Each candidate should be provided with the following specimens labelled accordingly:
A- Secchi disc;
B- Dissolved Oxygen Meter;
C- Fish entrails;
D- Fish bones;
E- Earthworm,
F- Maggot;
G- Pawpaw leaves;
H- Rice bran;
I – Wheat bran;
J- Soya bean cake;
K- Purse seine net;
L-  Frog:
M- Needle and Syringe;
N- Smoked catfish;
Q- Live catfish;
R- Clayey soil;
S- Sandy soil;
T- Loamy soil.

3. Supervisor’s Report Forms are provided separately on which you are
required to:
(a) supply details of the specimens and materials provided;
(b) report on any particular difficulties experienced by any candidate especially if the examiner would be unable to discover these difficulies from the scripts;
(c) make and recod experimental observations.
You must enclose a completed Report Fom in each envelope of scripts.



SPECIMEN A: Secchi depth
SPECIMEN B: Dissolved Oxygen concentration


Specimen B is a dissolved oxygen meter used in fish culture to measure the amount of oxygen dissolved in water. It is calibrated before use to ensure accurate readings. A water sample is collected from the desired location within the system ensuring that the sample represents the water conditions experienced by the fish. The sensor is then immersed in the water sample, and the dissolved oxygen meter is activated to start the measurement process.

(i) Reduced growth rates
(ii) Leads to respiratory distress
(iii) Reduction in feed consumption
(iv) Results in increased mortality risk
(v) Disruption in metabolic functions and increased stress.



Fish waste or fish by-products.

(i) Used as bait for fishing
(ii) Used for pet food
(iii) Processed for fertilizer production
(iv) Used as a source of Omega-3 fatty acids for animal feed
(v) Used to make fish oil
(vi) Processed for the production of fishmeal

(i) Ground and added to animal feed as a source of calcium and phosphorus
(ii) Used to manufacture bone meal fertilizer
(iii) Used in the production of gelatin
(iv) Used to make fish broth
(v) Used in the production of fish sauce
(vi) Processed for the production of fish glue.

(i) fish heads fish skin (ii) fish scales.

(i) Specimen E – Fish feed
(ii) Specimen F – Fish feed
(iii) Specimen G – Fish food
(iv) Specimen H – Fish feed
(v) Specimen J – Fish feed

Soya bean cake is protein yielding.

(i) High in protein content
(ii) Contains essential amino acids necessary for fish growth
(iii) Enhances the immune system of fish
(iv) Reduces the risk of bacterial and fungal infections in fish
(v) Promotes faster growth and development of fish
(vi) Cost-effective and readily available.



Purse seine nets are commonly used in commercial fishing to capture large schools of fish like sardines herring and tuna. The net is a long wall of mesh that is set out in a semicircle around a school of fish and then closed like a purse to trap the fish. The bottom of the net is weighted to sink and keep the fish in while the top of the net floats on the surface. Once the fish are trapped they are hauled aboard the fishing vessel with a winching system.

Sandy soil

(i) Good water drainage: Sandy soil allows water to drain freely which is essential for maintaining good water quality in the pond.
(ii) Prevents waterlogging: Waterlogging can lead to poor water quality which can be harmful to fish.
(iii) Easy to excavate: Sandy soil is easy to excavate compared to clayey soil which can be hard and compact.
(iv) Low cost: Sandy soil is readily available and inexpensive compared to other construction materials.
(v) Allows for efficient aeration: Sandy soil promotes efficient oxygen transfer between the water and atmosphere which is essential for the health of fish and aquatic plants.
(vi) Provides a stable base: Sandy soil provides a stable base for the pond reducing the risk of erosion and collapse of pond walls.

(i) Predation: Frogs are predators that can feed on small fish and fish eggs reducing the fish population in the pond.
(ii) Compete for food: Frogs can compete with fish for food resources negatively affecting the growth and development of fish.
(iii) Disease transmission: Frogs can carry and transmit diseases that can be harmful to fish.
(iv) Oxygen depletion: Large numbers of frogs in a pond can lead to oxygen depletion which is harmful to fish.
(v) Fouling of water: Frogs can contribute to the accumulation of organic matter in the pond leading to increased levels of ammonia and other harmful compounds.
(vi) Aesthetic problems: Frogs can be seen as a nuisance and can detract from the aesthetic appeal of the pond.

(i) Physical barriers
(ii) Habitat modification
(iii) Chemical control
(iv) Predation
(v) Trapping
(vi) Sound deterrents

(i) Vaccination: Needles and syringes are used to administer vaccines to fish to protect them from disease.
(ii) Medication: Needles and syringes are used to administer medication to fish to treat various diseases and infections.
(iii) Sampling: Needles and syringes are used to collect tissue samples from fish for research or diagnostic purposes.
(iv) Hormone treatment: Needles and syringes are used to administer hormones to fish to promote growth or induce reproduction.
(v) Anesthesia: Needles and syringes are used to administer anesthesia to fish prior to surgery or for research purposes.

(i) Hygiene: Proper hygiene practices must be observed to prevent the spread of disease or infection.
(ii) Accuracy: Ensure accurate dosing of medication or vaccines to avoid under or overdosing.
(iii) Safety: Proper handling and disposal of needles and syringes must be observed to prevent injury or accidents.
(iv) Needle size: The appropriate needle size should be used depending on the size of the fish and the depth of injection required.
(v) Type of injection: The type of injection (intramuscular or intraperitoneal) should be selected based on the medication being administered and the intended effect.



(i) Taste and texture: Smoked catfish tends to have a stronger and smoky flavor compared to live catfish
(ii) Appearance: Smoked catfish has a darker and more uniform color compared to live catfish which has a more mottled and patterned appearance.
(iii) Shelf life: Smoked catfish has a longer shelf life compared to live catfish which requires proper storage and refrigeration to avoid spoilage.
(iv) Nutritional value: Live catfish is richer in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids protein and vitamin B12 compared to smoked catfish which may lose some of its nutritional value during the smoking process.
(v) Cost: Live catfish is typically less expensive than smoked catfish due to the additional processing and preservation methods used.
(vi) Preparation time: Smoked catfish is ready to eat and requires no further preparation while live catfish requires cleaning descaling and preparation before cooking.
(vii) Availability: Smoked catfish may be more widely available in some areas compared to live catfish which may be seasonal or limited to certain regions.

(i) Clean the catfish by removing the intestines gills and scales.
(ii) Rub salt pepper and spices on the catfish.
(iii) Hang the catfish on a wooden rack to dry in the sun.
(iv) After drying smoke the catfish in a smoker for several hours until it is fully cooked and has a smoky flavor.

(i) Smoked catfish has a longer shelf life than fresh fish.
(ii) Smoking helps to preserve the natural flavor of the fish.
(iii) Smoked catfish can be stored without refrigeration.
(iv) Smoked catfish is easier to transport than live fish.
(v) Smoking provides a way to utilize surplus harvests.
(vi) Smoked catfish can be used in various recipes and cuisines.

(i) Plastic bags
(ii) Vacuum-sealed bags
(iii) Aluminum foil
(iv) Wax paper
(v) Glass jars
(vi) Tin cans