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(i) Legislative Function: The government is responsible for making laws and regulations that govern the behavior of individuals and institutions within society. This includes the enactment of new laws, amending existing laws, and creating frameworks for legal and regulatory systems.

(ii) Executive Function: The government is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws and policies. It includes the execution of administrative tasks, management of public services, and the enforcement of regulations through various government agencies and departments.

(iii) Judicial Function: The government ensures access to justice and maintains a fair and impartial judicial system. It includes interpreting laws, resolving disputes, and administering justice through courts and other legal mechanisms.

(iv) Defense and Security Function: The government is responsible for protecting the nation’s borders, maintaining internal security, and defending against external threats. This includes maintaining armed forces, intelligence agencies, and law enforcement bodies.

(v) Economic Function: The government plays a crucial role in managing the economy. It involves creating and implementing economic policies, regulating financial institutions, promoting economic growth, managing public finances, and providing public goods and services.

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(i) Legislative Function: The government, particularly the legislative branch, is responsible for creating, amending, and repealing laws. It formulates policies and regulations that govern various aspects of society, such as civil rights, public safety, taxation, economic regulations, and social welfare.

(ii) Executive Function: The government’s executive branch, led by the head of state or head of government, is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws and policies. It oversees the day-to-day operations of the state and its various departments and agencies.

(iii) Judicial Function: The government, through the judiciary, ensures the fair and impartial administration of justice. The judicial branch interprets laws, resolves disputes, and upholds the rule of law. It safeguards individual rights and liberties, ensures due process, and provides a mechanism for resolving legal conflicts and disputes.

(iv) Protection and Defense: One of the primary functions of the government is to protect its citizens and defend the country’s sovereignty. This involves maintaining law and order, providing security through police and other law enforcement agencies, and safeguarding national security through defense forces.

(v) Economic Management: The government plays a significant role in managing the economy. It formulates economic policies, regulates industries and commerce, provides public goods and services, and manages fiscal and monetary policies.

(vi) Social Welfare and Public Services: Governments are responsible for providing essential public services to their citizens. These include education, healthcare, infrastructure development, public transportation, social security, and welfare programs.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Governments engage in diplomatic efforts and manage international relations on behalf of the state. This involves negotiating treaties, participating in international organizations, representing the country’s interests abroad, and fostering diplomatic relationships with other nations.

(viii) Public Communication and Information: Governments are responsible for disseminating information to the public and engaging in transparent communication. This includes providing accurate and timely information, promoting public awareness, and engaging in dialogue with citizens to ensure transparency and accountability.

(i) Insufficient Resources: Inadequate allocation of resources, including funding, infrastructure, and personnel, can severely impede the effective functioning of the justice system. Lack of resources can result in overcrowded courts, understaffed judicial bodies, and limited access to legal aid, undermining the system’s ability to deliver timely justice.

(ii) Corruption and Bribery: The presence of corruption and bribery within the justice system can erode public trust and confidence. When judges, lawyers, or court personnel are susceptible to external influences or engage in corrupt practices, it undermines the fairness and impartiality of the justice delivery system.

(iii) Lack of Access to Legal Services: Unequal access to legal services, particularly for marginalized and economically disadvantaged individuals, poses a significant challenge. Limited availability of legal aid, high legal costs, and inadequate representation can result in unequal access to justice, favoring those with greater resources.

(iv) Complexity and Lengthy Procedures: Complex and lengthy legal procedures can deter individuals from seeking justice. When legal processes are convoluted and time-consuming, it discourages people from pursuing their rights and can lead to frustration and a lack of faith in the justice system.

(v) Inadequate Judicial Training: The effectiveness of the justice delivery system relies on well-trained and competent judges and legal professionals. Insufficient training programs and professional development opportunities can hinder the system’s ability to interpret and apply laws effectively, impacting the quality of judgments and decisions.

(vi) Political Interference: Undue political influence on the justice system can compromise its independence and impartiality. When politicians interfere in judicial appointments, case proceedings, or verdicts, it undermines the integrity of the justice delivery system and erodes public trust.

(vii) Inadequate Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: A lack of accessible and efficient alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation and arbitration, can burden the formal justice system. When people are unable to resolve their disputes through alternative means, it increases the caseload of the courts and contributes to delays in justice delivery.

(viii) Backlog of Cases: One of the significant challenges faced by the justice delivery system is the accumulation of a large number of pending cases. This backlog can lead to significant delays in the resolution of disputes, undermining the system’s efficiency and eroding public trust.


(i) Historical Legacies: Many West African countries inherited weak governance structures from their colonial past. Colonial rule often prioritized the extraction of resources rather than the development of strong institutions and governance systems. This legacy has had long-lasting effects on the capacity and effectiveness of government institutions.

(ii) Weak Rule of Law: Weak adherence to the rule of law undermines the functioning of government institutions. This includes challenges such as corruption, lack of accountability, and limited access to justice. When the rule of law is weak, it erodes public trust in institutions and hampers their ability to carry out their responsibilities effectively.

(iii) Political Instability and Conflict: West Africa has experienced significant political instability and protracted conflicts. Frequent coups, civil wars, and political violence disrupt governance processes and weaken institutions. Prolonged conflicts can lead to the breakdown of governance structures, hindering the development and functioning of government institutions.

(iv) Ethnic and Religious Divisions: Ethnic and religious divisions in some West African countries have exacerbated social tensions and undermined the effectiveness of government institutions. These divisions can lead to political polarization, favoritism, and the prioritization of sectional interests over the broader national interest, hampering governance and fostering instability.

(v) Economic Challenges: Economic factors, such as poverty, high levels of inequality, and resource dependency, pose significant challenges to government institutions. Limited economic resources can limit the capacity to invest in institutions and provide public services. Economic inequality can lead to social unrest and strains on governance systems.

(vi) Weak Capacity and Skills: Government institutions often face challenges in terms of capacity and skills. This includes limited technical expertise, inadequate training, and a lack of resources for institutions to carry out their mandates effectively. Insufficient capacity can result in inefficient service delivery, policy implementation gaps, and institutional dysfunction.

(vii) External Interference: External interference, such as interference from foreign powers or non-state actors, can undermine the functioning of government institutions. This includes factors such as illicit financial flows, foreign influence on decision-making processes, and the manipulation of governance systems for personal gain or geopolitical interests.

(i) Formation of Political Values and Beliefs: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political values and beliefs, which are essential for making informed political choices. Through family, education, media, and peer groups, individuals acquire knowledge about political systems, ideologies, and policies, enabling them to form opinions and make decisions in a democratic society.

(ii) Promotion of Political Awareness: Political socialization raises awareness about political issues, events, and processes. It exposes individuals to various sources of information, such as news, debates, and discussions, which helps them stay informed about political developments. This awareness enables citizens to actively engage in political debates, analyze different perspectives, and make informed decisions during elections and other democratic processes.

(iii) Encouragement of Active Citizenship: Political socialization encourages individuals to become active participants in the democratic process. By instilling a sense of civic duty, political socialization motivates citizens to vote, join political parties or interest groups, engage in public protests, and participate in community-based initiatives. Active citizenship is vital for a functioning democracy as it ensures that diverse voices and interests are represented and considered in decision-making processes.

(iv) Fostering Political Tolerance and Pluralism: Political socialization contributes to the development of political tolerance and respect for diverse viewpoints. Through exposure to different ideologies, cultures, and perspectives, individuals learn to appreciate and accept political diversity. This tolerance fosters open dialogue, compromise, and cooperation among citizens with differing opinions, which are fundamental for the functioning of a democratic society.

(v) Generation of Political Legitimacy: Political socialization helps establish political legitimacy by cultivating citizens’ trust and confidence in democratic institutions and processes. When individuals are socialized to understand the principles and values underlying democracy, they are more likely to accept and respect the outcomes of elections, abide by the rule of law, and actively engage in civic and political activities. This legitimacy strengthens the democratic system, enhances political stability, and facilitates effective governance.

(vi) Development of Political Identity: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political identity, which is crucial for their engagement in democratic processes. Through exposure to various socializing agents such as family, education, and media, individuals acquire a sense of belonging to a particular political ideology, party, or movement.

(vii) Transmission of Democratic Values: Political socialization plays a vital role in transmitting democratic values to individuals from an early age. Family, educational institutions, and social networks help instill values such as freedom, equality, fairness, and justice, which form the foundation of democratic principles.


(i)Understanding Identity and Belonging: Nationalism often revolves around a shared sense of identity, common history, language, culture, or territory. By studying nationalism, we gain insights into how individuals and groups define their sense of belonging and how it shapes their political aspirations.

(ii)Safeguarding Minority Rights: Nationalism can have both unifying and exclusionary tendencies. By studying nationalism, we can critically analyze its impact on minority rights. By understanding nationalist dynamics, policymakers can design inclusive policies and institutions that prevent the marginalization or discrimination of minority communities.

(iii)Managing Interethnic and Intercommunity Relations: Nationalist sentiments can have implications for interethnic and intercommunity relations within a state. It facilitates the development of policies and institutions that foster peaceful coexistence and intergroup harmony.

(iv)Shaping Democratic Institutions: Nationalist movements often advocate for political self-determination and the establishment of democratic systems. By studying nationalist activities, we gain insights into the demands, aspirations, and grievances of various groups within a society.

(v)Assessing Democratic Legitimacy: Nationalist movements can challenge existing political structures and call for greater autonomy or independence. By examining nationalist activities, we can assess the legitimacy and effectiveness of the democratic institutions in place.

(vi)Balancing National and Supranational Interests: In an increasingly interconnected world, the study of nationalism is essential for understanding the tensions between national interests and supranational frameworks, such as regional associations or international organizations.

(vii)Promoting Civic Engagement and Participation: Nationalist movements often mobilize citizens and foster a sense of collective agency. Studying nationalist activities can shed light on the mobilization strategies, participatory practices, and civic engagement methods employed by these movements.

Political leadership refers to the exercise of authority, decision-making, and the ability to mobilize and inspire people towards a common vision or agenda.


(i) Visionary: A good political leader has a clear vision of the future and a well-defined set of goals. They are capable of articulating their vision to the public and inspiring others to work towards achieving it.

(ii) Integrity and Ethics: A strong moral compass and adherence to ethical principles are crucial for a political leader. They act with honesty, transparency, and accountability, maintaining the trust and confidence of the people they represent.

(iii) Effective Communication: Effective communication skills are essential for a political leader to connect with the public, convey their ideas, and listen to the concerns of their constituents. They must be able to communicate complex issues in a clear and understandable manner.

(iv) Empathy and Compassion: Good political leaders have empathy and compassion for the people they serve. They understand the needs and aspirations of their constituents and work towards addressing their concerns and improving their well-being.

(v) Decisiveness: Political leaders need to make difficult decisions in a timely manner. They gather relevant information, consult with experts, consider various perspectives, and take decisive action when necessary. They should also be open to adjusting their decisions based on new information or changing circumstances.

(vi) Strategic Thinking: Political leaders must be able to think strategically and plan for the long-term. They analyze complex issues, anticipate potential challenges, and develop effective strategies to achieve their goals and address societal problems.

(vii) Collaborative and Inclusive: Good political leaders foster collaboration and inclusivity by seeking diverse viewpoints, building consensus, and promoting dialogue among different stakeholders. They create an environment where diverse perspectives are valued and encouraged.

(viii) Resilience and Determination: Political leadership often involves facing obstacles, criticism, and setbacks. Good leaders exhibit resilience, persevere in the face of challenges, and remain determined to overcome obstacles and achieve their objectives.

Another version of 7


Political leadership refers to the role and responsibilities of individuals who hold positions of authority and influence within the realm of politics. It encompasses the ability to lead, guide, and make decisions that shape the political landscape and governance of a country, region, or community.


Political leadership refers to the process and practice of guiding and influencing political processes and activities towards achieving specific goals within the realm of politics. It involves individuals who hold positions of authority or influence within political systems and who use their power to shape policies, make decisions, and mobilize support.


(i)Integrity: Good political leaders are honest, ethical, and demonstrate a strong sense of integrity. They act in the best interest of the public and uphold high moral and ethical standards.

(ii)Vision and Strategic Thinking: Effective political leaders have a clear vision for the future and are capable of strategic thinking. They can envision and articulate a compelling long-term direction for their country or community.

(iii)Strong Communication Skills: Good political leaders are excellent communicators. They can effectively convey their ideas, inspire others, and build consensus. They actively listen to diverse perspectives and engage in constructive dialogue.

(iv)Emotional Intelligence: Political leaders with emotional intelligence are aware of their own emotions and can manage them effectively. They also demonstrate empathy and understanding towards the needs and concerns of the people they serve.

(v)Leadership and Decision-Making: Good political leaders possess strong leadership skills. They have the ability to make informed and timely decisions, even in challenging or complex situations.

(vi)Problem-Solving and Innovation: Effective political leaders are adept at problem-solving. They can identify key issues and challenges, develop creative solutions, and take decisive action.

(vii)Resilience and Perseverance: Good political leaders exhibit resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity. They remain committed to their vision and goals, even when confronted with obstacles or setbacks.

(i) Economic Cooperation: Diplomacy fosters economic cooperation and trade relations between Nigeria and other nations.

(ii) Foreign Aid and Development Assistance: Diplomatic efforts enable Nigeria to engage with foreign governments, international organizations, and donor agencies to secure foreign aid and development assistance.

(iii) Political Stability and Conflict Resolution: Diplomacy facilitates peaceful resolutions of conflicts and promotes political stability.

(iii) Regional Integration and Cooperation: Diplomatic initiatives contribute to regional integration and cooperation within West Africa.

(iv) Energy Security: Nigeria is a significant oil producer and exporter.

(v) Foreign Policy Advocacy: Diplomatic engagements allow Nigeria to advance its foreign policy objectives and interests on global platforms.


(i)Imposition of Colonial Rule: European powers, such as Britain, France, and Germany, imposed direct colonial rule over various West African territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This resulted in the loss of sovereignty and political independence for the indigenous states and societies.

(ii)Administrative Reorganization: Colonial powers reorganized the political and administrative structures of West African territories to suit their interests. They established centralized bureaucratic systems, replacing or co-opting existing traditional systems of governance.

(iii)Creation of Artificial Boundaries: Colonial powers drew arbitrary boundaries without considering the ethnic, cultural, or historical realities of the region. This resulted in the division of ethnic groups and communities across multiple colonies, leading to fragmented and diverse political landscapes.

(iv)Emergence of Nationalist Movements: The experience of colonial rule and the denial of political rights and self-determination fueled the growth of nationalist movements. These movements sought to challenge colonial domination and fought for independence and self-governance.

(v)Political Education and Awareness: The colonial period witnessed the emergence of educated elites who received Western-style education and were exposed to political ideas such as nationalism, self-determination, and democracy.

(vi)Transition to Statehood: The political impacts of colonial administration laid the groundwork for the eventual transition to statehood. Through nationalist struggles and diplomatic negotiations, West African territories gained independence from colonial rule.

(vi)Legacy of Colonial Borders and Divisions: The artificial borders established by colonial powers have had lasting impacts on the political dynamics in West Africa. Post-colonial states have had to grapple with issues of ethnic diversity, boundary disputes, and the legacy of colonial rule, which continue to shape political realities in the region.


(i) Policisation of the Army: since the fundamental role of the army is to defend the state from any external attack, the unnecessary romance of some key military officers with the politicians politicises the army indirectly. Appointment and promotions in army are most a times based on political sentiment.

(ii) Low level of economic development: the rate at which a country develops I comparison to other countries induces military into governance. When there is low rate of economic development it may lead to gross social insecurity in the country.

(iii) Political Crisis: when there is serious political unrest caused by unmerrited and unnecessary political rivalry and clashes in a country the military may decide to venture into power.

(iv) Bad Leadership: when the leaders are not delivering on their political manifestoes and campaign promises made to the citizens, the military might be induced to cease power.

(v) High level of corruption: when the wealth of the state which ought to be used judiciously for people oriented projects are shared by politicians and their allies the military might come into politics due to this high level of embezzlement of public funds by political gladiators in the state.

Another version of No 10
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(i) Political Instability and Weak Leadership: Persistent political instability, frequent leadership crises, and a lack of effective governance can undermine democratic processes. When there is a perceived inability or failure of political leaders to address pressing issues and maintain stability, the military may be tempted to intervene to restore order and provide a sense of leadership.

(ii) Corruption and Mismanagement: Widespread corruption, financial mismanagement, and the misuse of public resources erode public trust in democratic institutions. When corruption becomes pervasive and undermines the functioning of government, the military may then justify intervention as a means to combat corruption and restore integrity to governance.

(iii) Electoral Fraud and Manipulation: Manipulation of elections, voter suppression, and fraudulent practices undermine the legitimacy of democratic processes. When elections are marred by irregularities, lack of transparency, or political interference, it can lead to public anger and distrust in the electoral system. The military might argue that intervention is necessary to ensure free and fair elections and protect the democratic process.

(iv) Weak Rule of Law and Insecurity: When the rule of law is weak and there is a failure to maintain public security, it can create a sense of lawlessness and instability. If crime rates are high, terrorist groups are active, or there is widespread violence, the military might argue that it is necessary to step in to restore order and protect the population.

(v) Socioeconomic Crisis and Inequality: Persistent socioeconomic crises, such as high poverty rates, unemployment, and inequality, can create frustration and discontent among the population. If democratic governance fails to address these issues adequately, the military may position itself as a force capable of implementing policies to address socioeconomic challenges and bring about stability.

(vi) Ethno-Religious Conflicts: Deep-seated ethnic or religious divisions can pose a threat to democratic governance. When political leaders exploit these divisions for their gains or fail to address them adequately, it can lead to violent conflicts and social unrest. The military may see itself as a force that can restore stability and protect the interests of particular ethnic or religious groups.

(vii) Ineffective Governance and Service Delivery: Inefficient or ineffective governance, characterized by poor public service delivery, economic mismanagement, and failure to address social and economic disparities, can create dissatisfaction among the population. When citizens’ basic needs are not met and there is a lack of progress in development, the military may be seen as an alternative capable of bringing about change and improving governance.




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