This is also referred to as official letter where serious subject matters are discussed. This include letter of employment, appointment, inquiries, complaint, invitation, appreciation, suggestions, notification and commendation etc.


The layouts are the constituents of a formal letter. They are:
1. Two addresses: The address of the writer and date on the top right side followed by the address of the receiver on the left side.
2. Salutation: Avoid the use of Dear Sir/Ma. Use Sir/Ma only. Though Dear sir/ma is still widely used.
3. Title/Subject Heading: This is the lead way to what the content should be.
4. Opening Paragraph: Stating the reason for the letter.
5. Body of the letter: the main reasons for the letter.
6. The Final Paragraph: It conveys one’s expectation.
7. Formal closing: Include subscription (Yours faithfully), signature and full name.

Language of Formal Letter

Formal letter must be devoid of: colloquialisms, slangs, contractions, uncommon abbreviations, archaisms, cliches, idioms and proverbs.

Samples of Formal Letters synonymous to examinations such as WAEC, NECO, and GCE are provided below from different years past questions:

2022 WAEC Question 3
As a former senior prefect, write a letter to the principal of your school on the occasion of its 60h anniversary
celebration, congratulating him and
offering three suggestions for the improvement of the school.

22, Harmony Estate,
Akobo Ojurin,
11th August, 2022.

The Principal,
Victory International School,
Bashorun Avenue,
Agbowo Ojoo,
Dear Sir,


It gives me great pleasure to congratulate you on the Diamond Jubilee of Victory International School. Over the years,
Victory International School has been recognized for her excellent academic standard. She has won several awards from both the government and nongovernmental organizations. Some of the awards include the Olympiad Awards, Most Outstanding
Private Secondary School in Oyo State and many others.
Victory International School is known for her excellent performance in West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination
by producing the Overall Best Candidates for the past twenty-three years. The teachers are dedicated and disciplined. They do not play with their job. They make sure they bring out the best in each student. They all dislike lateness to school and laziness and always make sure every student participates in every school activity – like the school assembly, games, literary and debate.
On this occasion of the school’s Diamond Jubilee, I would like to suggest areas where the school needs to improve in order
to be up to date with twenty first century academic standard.
Firstly, we are in the digital age, so, the school needs a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit,
store, create, share or exchange information, that is, Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Research has shown that Information and Communication Technology can lead to an improved student learning and better teaching methods. Some examples of the infrastructure needed are computers, laptops, printers, tablets, projectors, even a website for the school will be
an additional advantage. These technologies deal with the transmission and reception of information of different kinds. They also make learning fun and make students active in the classroom.
The second area I would love to suggest is sport. Organized sports participation helps in the development of physical skills
such as general body coordination, movement skills and strength and keeps the body fit. Some of the sports include football, swimming, basketball, bicycling and gymnastics. These sports have positive impact with higher levels of attentiveness in and outside of the classroom. They increase a student’s ability to concentrate and recall. Sports also teach values such has fairness, teamwork and team building, discipline, and perseverance.
The last but not the least of the areas the school needs to improve is skills acquisition. The students need to learn a lucrative skill which will give them the ability to perform different activities in a competent manner. Some of the skills they can acquire are tailoring, baking, knitting, tie and dye, hair dressing, painting and carpentry. These skills would help the students to improve their way of thinking and problem solving. They can also equip them for the future to become seif-reliant.
In conclusion, all these suggestions should be explored in order to expose the students to various learning activities and self-discovery. They would also make the school attain greater heights and continue to stand out.

Yours faithfully,

Ajibade James.

2021 WAEC: Question 3
Cases of malaria have been on the increase in recent times in your country.
Write a letter to the Minister of Health
discussing your observation and suggesting at least three ways of curbing the disease.

32, Alawode Road,
September 3, 2021.

The Health Minister,
Federal Ministry of Health,
Federal Capital Territory,
Dear Sir/Madam,


I write to call your urgent attention to the incessant incident of malaria ravaging the country. Malaria is a disease that is old and long-stayed with us in Nigeria. Thus, it is strange to observe that virtually every medical facility-the federal teaching hospitals, the state-owned health centres and the primary healthcare clinics-in every state of the federation records daily admission of malaria patients, while the many extreme cases even result in increased rate of mortality, especially of infants.

I have generally observed that poor environmental condition, lack of sanitation and unhygienic practices have made many communities the breeding spaces for anopheles mosquitoes-the carriers and dispersals of malaria. in llupeju Lagos, from where I write, the communities, streets and ghettos are ridden with cesspits of dirt, stagnant water and guters. Children play everywhere around and get stung by mosquitoes, and many of the houses with open windows encourage the influx of these insects into homes. Although medical agencies visit occasionally to provide free insecticide nets and preventive advice to home, this effort seems a drop in the occasion, compared to the ratio of malaria patients admitted daily in both private and public clinics. This is perhaps because the nets become less eftective after some time. Besides, even the dispensaries closer to the people are hardly equipped with drugs, diagnostic machinery and passionate workforce to arrest the situation with the swift attention that it deserves.

Therefore, this disease needs to be curbed head on, through preventive and curative malaria control to forestall further mortality. One way of doing this is by collaborating with international health agencies for the provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets that will be effective for at least three years. The nets provide protection at night when individuals are most vulnerable.
They kill potential disease-carrying mosquitoes on contact, and are safe for children and adults. Another way is through indoor residual spraying. The Ministry can provide alongside the nets, a chemical insecticides for households to spray on walls and roofs to kill adult vector mosquitoes. This shortens the life span of such mosquitoes so that they can no longer transmit malarıa parasites. Aside this, there is need for rapid diagnostic tests for malaria before treatment. The tests detect specific pathogens produced by malaria parasites that are present in the blood of infected patients. In addition, effective drugs should be supplied to local dispensaries with capable hands to administer them.
I am quite confident that you will use your good office as the Health Minister to facilitate these and many other strategies that will put an end to disturbing cases of malaria in Nigeria.

Tayo Okoye
Resident of Ilupeju, Lagos.

2020 WAEC: Question 3
As a Senior Prefect of your school,
write a letter to the principal pointing
out at least two practices among students that should be discouraged and two habits that should be promoted among teachers.

Greenfield Comprehensive College,
1, Asukoro Road.,
Benin City,
Edo State.
August 26, 2020.

The Principal,
Greenfield Comprehensive College,
Dear Sir,

Students’ Bad Practices and Teachrs’ Expected Habits.

As expected of a Senior Pre fect of Greenfield College, I find it dutiful to point out some negative practices I have observed
among the students for sometime now. These untoward practices have started threatening the reputation the school had sus-
tained with years of commitment and hardwork. The school authorities therefore need to urgently address them.

Bullying and fighting are one worrisome practices that have become rise. Many cases have received teachers’ attention,
wherein some senior students both-male and female – extort, bully and harass the junior ones unnecessarily. The other day a
parent came with complaint that her daughter had returned home with bruises. The daughter had narrated how Yemi Osunade, a student in SS2B beat her, parted with her pocket money and threatened her to never tell anyone. Parents and guardians are beginning to worry about the safety of the children. Since safety is the first rule of living, parents might begin to consider withdrawing their children to elsewhere if nothing is done about this issue of bullying.
I also notice that dating, especially among senior students, is now the order of the day. It is not uncommon to see an SS3 boy befriending an SS2 girl. Many instances of two opposite sex students meeting at rendezvous withing the school premises, usually go unnoticed. Many times, I have bumped into opposite sex students kissing and fondling each other. I am afraid the school authorities might begin to receive bad news of unwanted pregnancies among the girls if nothing is done swiftly to arrest
this unnecessary romance distracting students from learning.
Yet another practice, especially among boys is gambling. Whenever students engage in football, dicing or table tennis, senior boys usually stake some money on the game, rather than play and enjoy the game as a form of social recreation. This often causes fight over who wins or who does not.
It is also important that I discuss the habits that need to be promoted among teachers in order to curtail these anomalies.
Teachers should develop concerned and keen interest in their students. Where teachers have keen interest in the affairs of their students, aside from the classroom activities, they will discover and be able to talk students out of these negative practices.
Another is that the school authorities should promote alternative disciplinary measures among teachers. The usual correctional method of using strokes on student is becoming unproductive as it no longer deters students. I believe alternative correctional measure that leave students with positive impact, will open doors for a better teacher-student relationship. It is therefore hoped that the school management will look into the matters I have pointed out here.
Yours faithfully,
Ugomma Peace.

2019 WAEC
Okigbo Memorial College,
4, Okigure Road,
Imo State.
June 29, 2019.
The Principal,
Okigbo Memorial College,
Imo State.
Dear Sir,
I am Peter Njokwu, a student in S.S. 3B. Being an eye witness of the fight that occurred on the 15th of June, 2019, resulting in the expulsion of Julius Obi, I find it necessary to set the record straight by giving a true account of the incidence, and to show that Juiius Obi was not at fault and should not have been expelled.
Truth be told, it was Amaka Joseph, the most notorious troublesome girl in S.S. 2, who triggered the fight. Amaka had once had issues with Rebecca Okafor, the Labour Prefect, because the latter ordered her and a couple of others to clean up the field as punishment for coming late to school. This had happened some weeks earlier. Amaka, being a belligerent girl, was then looking for a slight opportunity to waylay Rebecca.
On the day of the incidence, both were seen fighting near the hall. Amaka waš aimost tearing the Labour Prefect’s uniform as well as slapping, when Julius and I got to the scene. Knowing the kind of person Amaka is, I did not intervene, but Julius mediated between the fighters and freed Rebecca off Amaka’s hands. Suddenly, Amaka held Julius, while slapping, harassing and shouting at the same time. She called attention and screamed that Julius was fondling with her body.
In short a while, Amaka’s boyfriend, Michael Chukwu, and his friend, John Nnanna both in SS3 arrived the scene. They took Amaka’s word for it and started beating Julius up. The beating was too much as they were hitting him with broken legs of chairs. Julius had to defend himself; Julius swiftly threw his elbow to defend himself but it hit Amaka on the left eye and she fell. It was a serious hit; the eye swelled with many stains of blood. She was rushed to the school clinic.
Sir, Julius was just a victim of the whole situation, and shouldn’t have been expelled. Many students know him as a well-behaved brilliant boy, with no single record of fight in the school. The real culprit here is Amaka herself, her boyfriend Michael and John who worsened the whole situation. Julius was only trying to mediate and everything turned against him. Sir, I will like that you revisit this case, and see reasons why Julius Obi should be reinstated. Thank you for your understanding.
Yours faithfully,
Peter Njokwu

2018 WAEC: Write a letter to the Chairman of the Environmental Protection Agency on the effects of illegal felling of trees and suggest ways to remedy the situation.

Number 4,
Falade Street,
Elegushi Close
14hDecember, 2018

The Chairman,
The Environmental Protection Agency,
Dear Sir,

I write as a concerned citizen about the illegal felling of trees which is not only disconcerting but requires immediate intervention from your end, so that our precious environment will not be sacrificed for the purpose of profit.
The culture of deforestation has had tremendous consequences as everyone is seriously affected by the act. Deforestation has led to the extinction of some endangered species and have made millions of species lose their natural habitats, invariably leading to loss of biodiversity. Also, there has been a disruption of the water cycle due to the felling of trees as deforestation has made us susceptible to increased greenhouse gases emissions, which is inimical to everyone.
Furthermore, soil erosion, flooding and global warming are the attendant consequences of indiscriminate felling of tree. This culture needs to be addressed as its side-effects are enornously sinister. However, perpetrators of this act might have reasons for their actions as some claimed to use these trees for wood, paper, timber, and fuel. Also some convert the lands for farming purposes, construction of ranches, and other industrial and commercial purposes like mining and oil exploration uses. While these reasons may sound plausible, we must understand that we must never sacrifice our environment for the purpose of profit as the natural beauty of an environment is hugely fostered by trees. Hence, the following suggestions are proffered to prevent indiscriminate felling of trees.
Firstly, there should be an aggressive sensitisation on various media outlets to enlighten people about the consequences of felling trees. Adequate enlightenment would make people to have the requisite knowiedge about the consequences of their actions as no one would hide under the canopy of ignorance because deforestation encourages flooding, soil erosion and disruption of the water cycle which are phenomena that have negative effects on us.
More so, people need to be encouraged to start the culture of planting trees, this can be fostered when people in authorities, religious leaders, and leaders in various industries plant trees and preach about it, this would have a ripple effects on people within teir sphere of infiuence who would follew their footsteps.
Children have huge influence on their parents and thus veritable tools of influence. Teachers and school authorities should teach and inculcate the act of tree planting in their students and encourage them to practice this act in their respective homes.
With this, parents would learn the culture and there would be a system of continuity as children would be worthy ambassadors of tree planting and we could be assured that this culture would be disseminated to the younger and future generation.
Areas that continually fell trees should be sanctioned as that would serve as a deterrent to future perpetrators. For those who would want to fell trees for paper reasons, they could be advised to go paperless and recycle their products.
I am persuaded that if these suggestions are religiously adhered to, our environment will continue to Hourish and everyone will see it as a duty to safeguard their environment as we are our environment.
Yours faithfully,
Suleman Danjuma

2017 WAEC: Question 3
The electricity supply in your school has been irregular. As the Senior Prefect, write a letter to the Chairman of the Parent Teacher Association (PTA) telling him about the effect of this on the school and the need to provide a stand-by generator for the school.

State Memorial School,
17th September, 2017.

The Chairman,
Parent-Teacher Association,
State Memorial School,
Dear Sir,

I write on behalf of the entire students of Islamic Memorial School to first show our heart-felt gratitude for the block of classrooms you built for us. We pray that God bless you all.
Sir, we humbly request your assistance once more regarding the provision for a stand-by generator which is a dire need to achieve academic excellence in the school.
Our power supply has been erratic and frustrating. We are now used to total blackout for weeks which has reduced our efficiency and productivity in terms of our reading capacities. Sir, electricity is an important resource in every academic environment because it would motivate students, teachers, researchers etc. to hard work. The lack of such facility will encourage laziness and nonchalance.
Sir, as a result of our erratic power supply, students have resorted to the use of candles which, though a brilliant initiative, has its own negative consequences. Students sometimes sleep off when reading while the candle light is still on. This results in serious damage to properties and also endangers the lives of such students. Last week, a room in the female hostel caught fire as a result of the usage of candles that were not put off. As a result, all the furniture, fittings, and fixtures in that room got burnt. I believe their respective parents will not be happy with this ugly incident.
Furthermore, because of the usual black-out, culprits have decided to leverage on this to perpetrate their evil acts of stealing. There have been reported cases of stolen items which is mostly done in the cover of the night. I am of the view that this would reduce if we have electricity as everyone would be vigilant. Also, students are reluctant using the school computers because power could be taken at any time. Since we do not have U.P.S. and must of our works are not saved on the deskțops.
These computers are currently useless as no one is using them.
As a result of the above, we humbly request that you come to our aid by providing us with a stand-by generator which would not only spur academic excellence and diligence but would reduce accident, theft and enhance productivity.
We anticipate a positive response.
Thank you, Sir.
Samuel Kunde,
Senior Prefect

2016 WAEC: Question 3
The Parent-Teacher Association of
your school has decided to transform
the school into a single-sex school. As
the Senior Prefect, write a letter to the
Chairman giving, at least, three reasons why you disagree with the decision.

La Lakum Grammar School,
Off Jeba Road,
Kogi State.

The Chairman,
Parent-Teacher Association,
La Lakum Grammar School,
Off Jeba Road,
Kogi State.
Dear Sir,

Recall the decision made by the Association in their (recent) meeting, dated 15th March 2017, to transform the school into a single-sex school. Against this dacision, I deem it appropriate as the Senior Prefect, to write this letter, providing cogent
reasons why I am convinced that making La Lakum single-sex is not a good decision.

One thing La Lakum students have always enjoyed is that the mixed arangement affords them the privilege to socially cohere, improve on their human relations particularly among opposite sex, and most importantly among the boarders – and have respect for one another. It is not farfetched that children trained in a single sex schools tend to face lots of sex-related and adolescent challenges because they are uninformed, inexperienced and unexposed to manners and behaviour of the opposite sex. They are bereft of how to treat and be treated by the opposite sex. The opportunity the mixed arrangement provides for
both sexes to relate, socialise and learn the behavioural pattern of the opposite sex eludes single-sex school students. This has made some female students fall into the trap of randy men who played on their naivety and ignorance.
It may also interest you to know that, these days, lesbianism and gayism make strides among students from single-sex school. We have heard and seen evidence from two schools here  in Lokoja. I do not think La Lakum has ever recorded such an instance of homosexual practices amongst her students yet. And I do not think the school management is ready to bear such heinous phenomena or any other sexual perversion(s) that will besmirch its image.
Besides, it is quite thoughtful that transforming a mixed school into a single-sex will reduce the tendency to monitor and keep an eye on these adolescents. In a mixed school, it is believed that all – teachers, parents, schools, school management, etc are watch dogs to one another in the business of nurturing the students. Once the school becomes single-sex, it will only take in same-sex students and teachers, laying off others. This will further create laxity in monitoring the students. A recent instance
of a sexual practice between a female teacher and a male student in a school in the US justifies this. The teacher was monitored and caught by the boy’s parent who had earier observed something fishy. Had the school in question being a single-sex one, the parent would not have probably known because he (the parent) would never have quickly thought gayism was on the prowl between the teacher and his son.
Lastly, learning wise, I think that a mixed school provides a balanced and level-playing ground for both sexes. It provides a room for healthy competition among both male and female students, and spurs any of the genders to rise to the challenge whenever the other is taking the lead- in debates, sports, school activities, examinations, class projects, etc. This privilege also eludes students from singie-sex schools.
These few but cogent reasons, I think, will suffice to make the association have a rethink on embarking on its earlier decision to transfom La Lakum Grammar School into a single-sex school. It should have a rethink in the interest of all.
Thank you very much.
Yours Faithfully,
Abdul Yinusa.
(The Senior prefect)

2015 WAEC: Question 3
The School Hero is an award meant
for the student considered to have exhibited exemplary leadership qualities.
As the Senior Prefect, write a letter to
the Head of your school, giving three
reasons why your nominee should be
given the award.

Royal Standard College,
20th May, 2015.

The Principal,
Royal Standard College,
Dear Sir,

I write to nominate Abubaker Bolanle for the school Hero Award. I strongly recommend her for this award because she has demonstrated exemplary leadership qualities coupled with strong morals and impeccable academic distinctions which has distinguished her from her peers. She has also maintained the great feat of being the captain to the undefeated school female volley ball team since her Senior Secondary School One.

Abubakar Bolanle has been a source of inspiration and motivation to countless number of students who have made her their role model. She is not only a young achiever but a disciplined, focused, committed student who is an excellent team-player and a servant-leader. Bolanle’s article has appeared in all the national newspapers, she has represented Nigeria in the African Girl Child Debate Competition at (Ghana and came first. She came second in the National Mathematics competition for senior secondary school students coupled with numerous certificates and prizes she has won for the school. Remarkably, Bolanle represented Oyo State in the Bi-annual Aerospace competition, she beat atil the male contenders and emerged the only female student ever to compete in such a male dominated comnpetiion.
Sir, Bolanle single-handedly brought back to life the press club of our school by writing impressive stories, articles etc on the board and soliciting assistance from other students. She exhibited great endurance, optimism and persistence amidst discouragement from peers and teachers in realising this commendable task. The dividend of her heroic act has made the school press club to be the best in the local government. Furthermore, she made opportunities for leadership positions in the club which are occupied by student from S.S.1 to S.S.2, with this, we are rest assured the club will continue to function even when she leaves. The press club has gone for series of writing competitions and they have won on all these occasions which has further improve the image of our school as an institution of excellence and rare productivity.

She succeeded in persuading students to tell their parents why the school library need to be refurnished which is a rare feat because others have seen the problem but she refused to close her eyes to the problem but proffered solutions. The library which is now the envy of the school is as a result of Bolanle’s brilliant initiative. Significantly, this library has attracted readers from other schools which has helped boost our internal revenue as we charge fees from them for using our library.
Also, Bolanle organizes tutorial for the J.S.S. 3 students in preparation for their JSSCE examinations. She also mobilised other brilliant students to assist. She solely taught the students Islamic studies when the school does not have a teacher yet, this demonstrates her as a selfless leader whose joy is helping others.
Bolanle’s leadership quality is enviable coupled with her humility, disciplined nature, willingness to serve and her sacrificing heart.
I strongly recommend her for this award.
Thank you sir.
Yours Faithfully,
Jacob Fawale.
(Senior Prefect)

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