Subject: Agricultural Science
Topic: Farm Animals
Lesson Objective: By the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:
1. Define farm animals.
2. List the different types of farm animals.
3. Classify farm animals according to:
b. nature of their alimentary canal (or digestive tract)
DEFINITION AND TYPES OF FARM ANIMALS
The Farm animals refers to as a group of animals which are rear in the farm either for food or for commercial purposes.
The various types of farm animals include
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM
Farm animals can be classified into three major grouping. This grouping are based according to:
nature of their digestive tract
(1) Classification of farm animals
according to habitat: Habitant is defined as any environment in which an organism lives naturally. It is the natural home of an organisms for example, the habitat of the fish is water.
Farm animals are therefore classified
Into two groups based on their habitat. These two habitat are terrestrial and aquatic habitants
(a) Terrestrial Habitat: Terrestrial habitat refers animals that live on land. In other words, these animals lives on the surface of the land. All their growth, development, feeding and all activities are related to land. Examples of farm animals that live on land are poultry birds, cattle, sheep, goat, rabbit, geese, turkey, pig, ostrich and grasscutter.
(b) Aquatic Habitat: Aquatic habitat
refers to animal that live in water. In other words, these farm animals lives in inside any body of water such as river, lakes, streams, lagoons, wells, ponds, seas etc. all their growth, development, feeding and all activities are related to live in water examples of farm animals that Iives inside water are fishes, crabs and
CLASSIFICATION OF FARM
ANIMALS BASED ON THE NATURE
OF THEIR DIGESTIVE TRACT (OR
ALIMENTARY CANAL): Digestive tract (or alimentary canal) is that part of the digestive system where digestion of food takes in the body. Farm animals are again grouped into two main classes based on the nature of their alimentary canal or digestive tract. These are:
(a) Monogestric or non-ruminant
animals: These are animals which
possess only one stomach and they do
not ruminate (i.e, they do not chew the
cud). In other words, these animals have simple stomach and cannot digest cellulose and fibres properly. Examples are the pig, rabbit and poultry birds like the domestic fowl, turkey, ostrich and geese.
b. Polygestric or ruminant animals: These are farm animals which posses four stomach compartments (i.e complex stomach) and hence, they can ruminant or chew the cud. These animal can chew the cud and digest cellulose and fibres properly. The four stomach compartments of these animals are rumen, (the largest), reticulum, omasum and abomasums (true stomach).
Example of ruminant farm animals are the cattle, sheep, goat and rabbit. They are all herbivores (i.e they feed mainly on herbs or grasses).
(3) CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON THEIR USES: All the farm animals are reared for one or more uses to the farmers either for food or for other purposes.
Some of the uses of farm animals
Food: Virtually all farm animals provide food for mankind especially protein, minerals and some vitamins. Some of these animals are cattle, sheep, goat, rabbit, fowls, turkey and snail.
Hide and skin: Hide and skin are
derived from the skin of cattle, sheep
goat, rabbit etc. hide are skin are use
for bags, shoes, foot wears, jackets and decorations.
Horns: Horns are derived from animals like cattle, sheep and goat. They are found in the head region of these animals. Horns are used as raw materials in knife handles belt heads, decorative purposes, fertilizers, feed ingredients, musical instrument e.g. flute, for fighting in form of protection.
Milk: Milk is derived from farm animals
like cow (cattle) ewe (sheep). Sows
(pigs) and doe (goat). The pant that
produce this milk is the mammary gland or udder. Milk provide protein in food, used in baby food preparation, supplies mineral and vitamins to livestock.
Income: All farm animals are also rear
to provide income both to the farmers
and the nation.
Animal dung or manure: Animal dung or manure is produced mainly by all terrestrial animals like cattle, sheep, goat and poultry birds. manure serves as fertilizers, improves the structure and texture of the soul, it prevent erosion and has buffering effects on the soil.
Egg: Eggs are mainly produced by
poultry birds e.g. fowls, turkey, geese
and ostrich. Egg is a source of protein,
used in phamaceuticals, used industrially for paint making, adhesives, scouring
powder, sources of calcium in animals feeds. It is also used in the manufacturing of vaccaries and cosmetics.
Bone: Bone is derived from cattle,
sheep, goat, pigs etc. born is wed as
bone meal for livestock feed, making of hoes, provide vaccines and hormones from bone marrow.
Blood: Blood is derived from all farm
animals especially cattle, sheep, goat and pigs. Blood is collected from these animals during slaughtering. Blood is used as blood meal for livestock feed, it is also a source of vitamins and minerals to man, and also used industrially in providing hormones and other pharmaceutical products.
Feather: Feathers are derived mainly
from poultry birds such as domestic foul, turkey, geese and ducks, feathers are used mainly for making pillows,
cushions, mattresses and dusters.
1. What are farm animals?
2. State ten farm animals you know.
3.Mention and discuss the categories of farm animals
4. Differentiate between aquatic and
terrestrial farm animals and give three examples of each group.
5. Write short notes on:
(a) Monoastic animals
(b) Polygastric animals
6. Name six products that are derived from farm animals.
7. Discuss the uses of these products to man and farm animals.
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