ORDER OF CONTENT
- Objectives Questions
- Theory Questions
- Objectives solutions
- Theory solutions
1. Which of the following statements
about living things is correct? A. Animals respire using carbon (IV) oxide as a raw material B. Growth in plants is limited after some time C. Most plants respond to stimulus slowly D. Higher animals can reproduce asexually
2. Organ level of organization in living
things is found in A. water leaf plant.
B. virus particle. C. kidney. D. spermatozoon.
Diagrams X and Y below are illustrations of transverse sections of a part of plants. Study them and answer questions 3 to 5.
3. Which of the following statements is not correct? Diagrams X and Y are
sections of A. roots. B. a dicotyledonous root and a monocotyledonous root respectively. C. vascular bundles. D. stems.
4. The part responsible for conducting
water and dissolved mineral salts from
the soil to the leaves is labelled A. I. B. II. C. III D. IV.
5. The part labelled II is the A. pith. B. xylem. C. phloem. D. endodermis.
6. The organelles in cells which are also referred to as suicidal bags are the A. mitochondria. B. lysosomes. C. ribosomes. D. nuclei.
7. The process that brings about the
shrinking of a Spirogyra cell when
placed in a strong solution is A. osmosis. B. autolysis. C. plasmolysis. D. diffusion.
8. The region of a plant stem in which
cells divide to increase its diameter is
the A. cambium. B. phloem. C. xylem.
9. The total number of caudal vertebrae
in animals X and Y is 4 and 27 respectively. The animals are likely to be A. fish and human. B. toad and rat. C. toad and fish. D. humans and rat.
10. Which of the following blood components has the greatest affinity for oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide? A.
Lymphocyte B. Erythrocyte C. Blood
plasma D. Thrombocyte
Use the following processes to answer
questions 11 and 12.
I- Ribs move upward and outward
II- Diaphragm relaxes
I- Volume of thorax increases
IV- Air is forced out of the lungs
11. Which of the processes take place
during inspiration? A. I and III only B.
l and Ill only C. II and IV only D. III and IV only
12. Which of the processes is a direct result of contraction of the intercostal
muscles? A. I B. II C. III D. IV
13. The process by which the amount of water and solutes in the blood are controlled is known as A. haemolysis. B. diffusion. C. turgidity. D. osmoregulation.
The table below shows the effect of
hormones I, II, III and IV on some
parts of the human body. Where (✓)
represents effect and (x) represents no
effect of hormone on the corresponding part of the body. Study it and answer questions 14 and 15.
14. Which of the following hormones are I, II, III and IV respectively? A. ADH, Glucagon, Oestrogen, Adrenaline B. Adrenaline, Glucagon, Oestrogen, ADH C. Glucagon, ADH, Oestrogen, Adrenaline D. Adrenaline, ADH, Oestrogen, Glucagon
15. The hormone responsible for anxiety is A. I. B. II C. IM D. IV
The diagram below is an illustration of some parts of a mammalian car. Study it and answer questions 16 to 18.
16. The parts labelled I are the A. semi circular canals. B. ossicles. C. cochlea D. external auditory meatus.
17. Which of the parts are correctly
grouped? inner ear Middle ear Outer ear
18. The middle ear is connected to the pharynx by the part labelled A.. I. B. II C. III D. IV.
The diagrams below are illustrations
of two different cells involved in a biological process in mammals. Study them and answer questions 19 to 21.
19. Which parts of P and Q fuse to complete the biological process’? A. III and I. B. IV and I C. III and II D. IV and I
20. Which of the following statements
about P and Q is correct? A. Both cells
are structures for asexual reproduction B. Both cells normally belong to the same individual C. Both cells are found in plants D. The union of both cells gives rise to a new mammal.
21. If the number of chromosomes in the skin cells of mammals is 46, how
many chromosomes would be found
in P and Q respectively? A. 23 and 23
B. 23 and 46 C. 46 and 23 D. 46 and 46
22. In which of the following structures is simple sugar produced? A. Vacuole B. Cytoplasm C. Chloroplast D. Cell wall
23. An evidence of the occurrence of photosynthesis in an experiment is the A. release of carbon (IV) oxide. B. release of Oxygen. C. formation of water molecules. D. formation and release of fructose.
24. The major sources of vitamin A are A. egg yolk, carrot and palm oil. B. mango, pawpaw and eggs. C. sorghum, soya bean and liver. D. rice bran, green vegetables and milk.
Diagram J is a protease while diagrams K, L, M and N are food substances. Study them and answer questions 25 to 27.
25. Which of the illustrated food substances would form a reaction with protease J? A. KB. LC. M D. N
26. Protease J would react with the particular illustrated substance because enzymes A. are denatured at a high frequency. B. are specific in their action. C. remain unchanged after a reaction. D. speed up the rate of chemical reaction.
27. After a reaction between protease J and the food substance, the end-product would be A. fatty acids. B. glucose. C. amino acids. D. water.
28. The property of clayey soil that prevents it from supporting thick vegetation is its A. composition of chemically weathered granite rocks. B. inability to retain much water. C. tendency of becoming waterlogged. D. porosity and low water-retention ability.
29. Which of the following practices will not maintain soil fertility? A. Preventing soil erosion B. Bush fallowing C. Leaving the land bare D. Planting cover crops.
30. A group of organisms of the same
species living in a particular place is
known as A. colony. B. community. C.
ecosystem. D. population.
The diagram below is an illustration
of an experiment on sedimentation of
soil. Use it to answer questions 31 and
31. The organic component of the soil is labelled A. I. B. II C. III D. IV
32. The part labelled IV is A. silt. B. sand. C. humus. D. clay.
33. Which of the following pyramids is not used in ecology? Pyramid of A
energy B. numbers C. biomass D. organisms.
Study the food chain illustrated below
and use it to answer questions 34 to
34. Organism J is normally sustained by energy from A. green plants. B. carbohydrates. C. organism K. D. sunlight.
35. Which of the following statements
about organism L is correct? It A.
feeds on organism MB. is a primary
Consumer C. is the producer D. is a
36. The position occupied by each of organisms J, K, L, M and N in the food
chain is known as the A. energy level. B. trophic level. C.
food web. D. pyramid of numbers.
37. Which of the following features is not an adaptation of plants to aquatic habitats? A. Breathing roots for entry of air B. Flowers are raised above water to attract pollinators C. Spongy tissues containing gases for buoyancy
D. Hairy structures on the leaves to
reduce water loss
38. The biological association that contributes directly to succession in a
community is A. competition. B. predation. C. parasitism. D. commensalism.
39. The conservation of natural resources is enhanced by the following practices except A. controlling farming activities. B. protecting endangered species.
C. poaching in game reserves D. establishing parks and gardens.
40. The burning of farmlands should be discouraged because it A. destroys the organic components of the soil. B. increases the population of wild animals on the farm. C. increases the dormancy period of some seeds. D. destroys some plant pests.
41. The use of a lighter instead of match sticks is a way of conserving A. petroleum. B. forest. C. water. D. wildlife.
42. An accident victim was successfully transfused with blood from the father whose blood group is AB. The blood group of the accident victim is A. B, . B. O,. C. AB,. D. A,.
43. Which of the following traits in humans is an example of physiological variation? A. Skin colour B. Fingerprint C. Tongue rolling D. Height
44. Individuals belonging to blood group O are universal donors because A. antigens are absent in their blood cells. B. members of the group constitute the highest number of humans. C. there are no antibodies in their blood plasma. D. the antigens in their blood cells are easily destroyed.
45. Two tall plants were crossed and all the F1 plants were tail. When the F1 plants were selfed, some of the F, plants were tall while others were short. What are the possible genotypes of the original plants? A. Tt and tt B. TT and TT C. tt and tt D. TT and Tt
46. Which of the following statements
best describes a test cross? It is A. to
determine the genotype of an individual whose phenotype is known B. to determine the phenotype of an individual whose genotype is known
C. between the progeny of parents to
ascertain their external expressions D. between two homozygous recessive
individuals to confirm the genotypes
of the offspring.
47. Which of the following statements
about sex-linked traits is not correct?
A. Males inherit sex-linked traits from
their fathers B. Sex-linked traits are
more common in males C. Females
can be carriers because they can be
heterozygous for the trait D. Males are
never carriers since they only receive
one sex chromosome
48. When two carriers of sickle cell anaemia produce an offspring, the probability of the offspring being a sickler is A. ¾ B.¼ 4 C. ½ D ⅔
49. Which of the following organisms exhibits adaptive colouration? A. Rabbit B. Chameleon C. Mouse D. Dog
1ai)What is a cell?
(ii) Name three scientists that are associated with the discovery of the cell.
bi) Make a diagram, 6cm to 8cm long of a plant cell and label only the organelle responsible for cell reproduction.
ii) Name one blood cell in humans that does not have the organelle in bi).
iii) What is the biological implication of the cell named 1b(ii) not possessing
the organelle responsible for cell reproduction?
(c) List six organelles found in a plant
2 (a) Complete the table by ticking (✓) the appropriate group to which each of the listed elements required by plants belongs.
(ii) four differences between the dentition of a human and a goat.
(c) What are milk teeth?
3a(i) What is an ecological niche’?
i) State five roles played by a mango tree in its ecological niche.
bi) State two reasons why ecologists use sampling techniques in population studies.
ii) State four examples of sampling techniques used in population studies.
(c) Name four types of fingerprints in humans.
di) Name the plant used by Gregor Mendel in his experiment.
ii) State two reasons why the plant name in 3d(i) was used
4a(i)What are conservation laws?
ii) State three conservation laws.
bi) State two reasons why animals are
i) Name five animals that are commonly poached.
c) State four effects of excessive use of
(d) Explain briefly the following terms:
i) blood transfusion,
5a(i)State three differences between the alimentary canals of earthworm and cockroach.
(i) State three similarities between the
alimentary canals of earthworm and
(ii) The diagram below is an illustration of a biological cycle. Study it and answer questions 5b(i) to 5b(iii)
) Name the biological cycle.
(ii) Explain briefly three roles played by plants and animals in the cycle.
(ii) Name the processes that occur in X, Y and Z.
(c) Complete the table below.
di) What is decay of organic matter?
(ii) Name two groups of organisms that cause decay of organic matter.
iii) State one other factor that causes decay.
(iv) Name the biological cycle that involves decay.
(e) Explain briefly the mode of nutrition in carnivorous plants.
• Most plants respond to stimulus
. Growth in plants continues as long
as the plant lives. In animals however, growth is limited. An animal grows for a while and then growth ceases.
• Carbon (IV) oxide is not a raw material for respiration. Instead, it is a
product of respiration.
• Waterleaf plant is Organism level
• Kidney is Organ level
• Spermatozoon is Cell level
• Virus is at the borderline between living and non-living things
• X represents a dicotyledonous root
while Y represents a monocotyiedonous root
The presence of root hairs is enough
to inform us that the diagrams do not
The part lebelled I’ is xylem. It is re-
sponsible for the conduction of water
and mineral salts.
6. B: The organelles which are referred
to as suicidal bags are the lysosomes.
They earn this name due to the fact
that they can destroy other cell components.
7. C: Plasmolysis is simply the loss
of water from a cell when the cell is
placed in a hypertonic solution. This
loss of water causes shrinking.
8. A: Cambium contains meristematic
cells. These cells are capable of active
9. D: Human has 4 caudal vertebrae, rabbit has 16 while rat has 27-30
10. B: The haemoglobin in erythrocytes transports oxygen to individual body cells for tissue respiration. Also, carbondioxide which is a by-product of this energy generating process is transported by haemoglobin to the lungs for
11. A: I and III are associated with inhalation/inspiration while II and IV are associated with exhalation/expiration.
12. A: The contraction of the intercostal muscles causes the ribs to move upwards and outwards. This then causes an increase in the volume of the thoracic cage, enabling more air to rush into the lungs (as the pressure drops).
13. D: The process by which the amount of water and solutes in the blood are controlled is known as osmoregulation.
I is Adrenaline
II is Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
IIl is 0estrogen
IV is Glucagon
15. A: Adrenaline is the hormone responsible for anxiety.
I refers to the ear ossicles. These
bones are reputed as the smallest bones in the body. They are three in number:
. Malleus (Hammer)
• Incus (Anvil)
• Stapes (Stirrup)
17. D: The outer ear comprises the pinna and the auditory canal. The ear drum is at the junction of the outer ear and the middle ear. The middle ear comprises the ear ossicles and the Eustachian tube. The inner ear comprises the cochlea, the semi- circular canals and the nerves.
18. C: The middle ear is connected to the pharynx by the Eustachian tube (labelled as III). This explains why the
Eustachian tube is also known as Pha-
19. A: The process of fertilization involves the fusion of the nuclei of the
male and female gametes.
• Union of male and female gametes
occurs in sexual reproduction, not
The male gamete will be from the male individual while the female
gamete will be from the female in-
21. A: The skin cell is a somatic cell. The number of chromosomes in the sex cell is always half of that in the somatic cell for a given species.
Since P and are sex cells, number of
chromosomes in each of them will be
22. C: The chloroplast is the organelle
where photosynthesis occurs. Thus, it
can be said that simple sugar is produced in the chloroplast.
23. B: Oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis. Thus, its release is an evidence for the occurrence of photosynthesis
24. A: The sources of vitamin A include egg, palm oil, carrot sweet potatoes, mango, papaya etc.
25. B: It is food substance L’ that would form a reaction with protease. The shapes of the enzyme and the food substance conform to the lock and key hypothesis.
26. B: Enzymes are specific in their ac-
27. C: Since the enzyme is a protease, the food class it acts on is protein. The end product of digestion of protein is amino acid.
28. C: Clayey soil has a very high ten-
dency of becoming water-logged. 45.
This blocks root absorption and consequently limit the access to necessary nutrients.
29. C: Leaving the soil bare does not help soil fertility in any way. Instead, it favours soil erosion.
30. D: A group of organisms of the same species living in a particular place is termed population. A collection of organisms of different species living together constitutes a community.
31. A: The part labelled T is the humus.
The humus is the organic component
of the soil.
32. B: The bottom-most part comprises stones while the penultimate part (IV) comprises sand.
33. D: We have pyramids of energy, numbers and biomass. There is no such thing as pyramid of organisms.
34. D: J’ is the producer. It obtains its energy from the sun. The energy is harnessed in the photosynthetic manufacture of food.
35. D: K is the primary consumer, L is the secondary consumer while M is the tertiary consumer.
36. B: The position occupied by each organism in a food chain is known as the trophic level.
The position of an organism in its
habitat and the role of the organism
constitutes the ecological niche of the
37. D: An aquatic plant should not have any compelling need for water conservation. Availability of water is not a problem to such a plant.
38. A: The biological association that
contributes directly to succession in a
community is competition.
39. C: Poaching does not encourage conservation in any way. Instead, it favours the disappearance of the species.
40. A: The burning of farmlands should be discouraged because it destroys the organic components of the soil.
41. B: Since use is made of wood in the manufacture of match sticks, substituting lighter for match sticks is a way of conserving forest.
42. C: Even though AB’ can receive from any blood group, it can only donate to
a fellow AB’.
43. C: Skin colour, fingerprint and height are morphological variations while tongue rolling is a physiological variation.
44. A: Blood 0′ has no antigens but it has antibodies ‘A’ and ‘B’.
45. D: The original plants must be or
genotypes TT and Tt. Let us check by
Test cross involves crossing a homo-
zygous recessive individual with an
organism of unknown genotype to ascertain the genotype.
47. A: Males can only inherit sex-linked traits from the mothers (since the traits are borne on the X-chromosome and a male inherits his only copy of X-chromosome from the mother).
AS = Carrier
AA = Normal
SS = Sickler.
Sickler= one out of four = 1/4
49. B: Chameleon exhibits adaptive colouration. Its adaptive colouration is specifically known as camouflage.
Schizophyte < Thallophyte < Bryophyte < Pteridophyte < Spermatophyte.
• Algae (& fungi) are thallophytes
• Liverwort is a bryophyte
• Fern is a pteridophyte
• Angiosperms (and gymnosperms)
2022 WAEC BIOLOGY (THEORY)
1a (i)The cell is the basic, structural and functional unit of life.
(ii) -Theodor Schwann
– Matthias Schleiden
– Rudolf Virchow
NB: The key organelle responsible for
cell reproduction is the nucleus
(i) The blood cell that lacks nucleus is the red blood cell/erythrocyte
(ii) The absence of a nucleus allows the red blood cell to contain more haemoglobin and, therefore, carry more Oxygen molecules. However, without a nucleus, they cannot divide to make new red blood cells.
– Endoplasmic reticulum
– Golgi apparatus
c. Milk teeth are the first set of teeth in the growth and development of humans. These teeth are twenty in number. They are later replaced by the permanent teeth.
3a (i) The ecological niche is the position or function of an organism in a habitat. It describes how a species interacts within an ecosystem.
– It provides fruit
– It provides firewood
– It provides organic matter for soil replenishment
– It enhances soil conservation
– it has many medicinal applications
– It saves time
– It is usually impossible to go and
count each species present. Hence, the need for sampling techniques
– Random sampling
– Systematic sampling
– Convenience sampling
– Cluster sampling
4a(i)A conservation law states that a particular parameter of a system does not change as the system evolves over
– Law of conservation of matter
– Law of conservation of energy
– Food requirement
– For adventure
– Medicinal values of some animal
-Cultural and religion’s views
– Sea turtles
– Amur leopard
– African pangolins
– Habitat destruction of wild animals
– Soil – erosion
d(i) Blood transfusion is the transfer of blood or a blood component from one healthy person (a donor) toa sick person (a recipient).
(ii) An antigen is a molecule that initiates the production of an antibody and causes an immune response.
– They both have gizzard
– They both have pharynx
– They both have oesophagus
b(i) Water cycle
-Plants contribute to the water cycle via transpiration
– Animals release water into the water
cycle when they exhale
– Water is also a product of respiration
– Animals also contribute to the wate
cycle through excretion of waste.
– Xrepresents condensation
– Y represents respiration
d(i) Decay is the breaking down of organic matter through the action of some organisms.
– Oxygen (aeration)
(iv) Nitrogen cycle
(e) Just like other green plants, carnivorous plants are able to obtain their food through photosynthesis. However, these plants usually grow in areas that are deficient in nitrogen. This is why they trap insects (and other small animals) for nitrogen.
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