Lesson Note

Subject: Biology

Topic: Conservation of Natural Resources II

Lesson Objective: by the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

  1. Enumerate reasons for protection of land and wild life from destruction and extinction;
  2. State why various conservation laws should be obeyed;
  3. Discuss problems and difficulties associated with conservation;
  4. Discuss the need to conserve petroleum and natura gas;
  5. State methods of conservation of a given resource.

Lesson Summary / Discussion


1. Methods of Conserving Wildlife
Establishment of game or forest reserves.

  • Establishment of zoological gardens.
  • Control of hunting to prevent extinction of some animal species.
  • Prohibition of killing or poaching of animals in game reserves.
  • Prohibition of bush burning as this may lead to migration or displacement of wildlife.
  • Prohibition of deforestation and encouragement of afforestation or reafforestation.
  • Creation of awareness on the values of wildlife.
  • Prevention of pollution to prevent the destruction of aquatic life.

(2) Methods of Conserving Water

  • Trapping or storage of water in tanks or wells.
  • Damming of rivers to allow for more effective management of water.
  • Treatment and recycling of used water.
  • Saving of water by prompt repair of burst pipes or turning off taps immediately after use.
  • Tree planting which provides vegetation cover and reduces evaporation and promotes water retention.
  • The existence of vegetation also brings about the formation of rainfall.
  • Prevention of water pollution by sewage and chemical from industries and homes.

3. Methods of Conserving Forest

  • Cutting of trees without destroying the undergrowth.
  • Reafforestation or encouraging the planting of trees.
  • Prevention of bush burning or careless forest fires.
  • Prevention of plant pests and diseases.
  • Establishment of forest reserves.
  • Educating the public on the value of forests and the importance of conservation.

4. Methods of Conserving Soil

  • Prevention of over-grazing which may cause soil erosion.
  • Prevention of indiscriminate felling of noig trees or deforestation which exposes the soil to erosion.
  • Adoption of better farming practices, crop rotation so as to prevent cons erosion, leaching, water logging or acidity.
  • Prevention ofpollution of land so as not to destroy useful soil organisms.
  • Avoidance of clean clearing which may expose the soil to erosion.
  • Prevention of bush burning which may expose the soil to erosion.

(5) Methods of Conserving Air

  • Prevention of effluents from factories or factory chimneys which may pollute the air or cause acid rain.
  • Prevention of fumes from automobile and thermal plants which may affect aerial life or render air unfit for organisms.
  • Proper treatment and disposal of sewage.
  • Proper burning of wastes so as to prevent smoke or soot from polluting the air.

6. Methods of Conserving Mineral
Mineral resources, unlike other
resources, are non-renewable resources because once they are exhausted, they cannot be replaced hence the need to conserve. The methods of conserving mineral resources are:

  • There should be legislation against indiscriminate mining of mineral resources.
  • Effective and efficient extraction methods of mining should be adopted to prevent wastages.
  • There should be effective and efficient utilisation of available mineral resources for man’s use.
  • Over-dependence on a particular mineral resource should be discouraged as this can lead to the depletion of such mineral resource.
  • There should be proper pricing of mineral resources and their by-products to ensure maximum value for the mineral products.


1. Benefits of Wildlife Resources Conservation

  • It provides food for human consumption, e.g. meat, fish and eggs.
  • lt generates revenue for government.
  • It can serve as tourist centres for pleasure and relaxation.
  • It provides research work for scientists.
  • It can generate employment for some people.

2. Benefits of Water Resources Conservation

  • It serves as sources of food supply, e.g. fish, prawns and crayfish.
  • It is used for Hydro-Electric Power (H.E.P.) generation which provides electricity, e.g. Kainji dam.
  • Water is useful for agricultural purposes i.e.irrigation.
  • Water serves as a medium of transportation in rivers, lakes and oceans.
  • Water is important for domestic and industrial uses, e.g. drinking, washing.
  • Water provides employment for people, e.g. fishermen, canoe or ship builders.
  • Water can be used for recreational and tourist purposes.

3. Benefits of Forest Resources Conservation

  • Forests are sources of food supply, e.g. fruit, vegetables and meat.
  • Forests are sources of timber for construction purposes.
  • Forests provide medicinal herbs.
  • They are sources of (fuel) firewood used for cooking
  • Forests are the home or habitat of wild animals which can serve as game reserves
  • Forests provide employment for some people, e.g. forest guards, lumbermen and hunters.
  • Forests provide raw materials for industries, e.g. cotton, rubber, ropes and twine, latex and timber.
  • Forests can serve as centres of tourism.
  • Forests can also serve as wind break.

4. Benefits of Soil Resources Conservation

  • Soil supports agricultural or farming activities.
  • Soil also supports forest and its resources.
  • Soil supports wildlife resources.
  • It is the home of some organisms.
  • It supports the growth of valuable wood for building and furniture making.
  • Buildings are erected on the soil.
  • Mineral resources are obtained from the soil.

5. Benefits of Air Resources Conservation

  • Air provides oxygen used in respiration by plants and animals.
  • It provides carbon dioxide used by plants for photosynthesis.
  • Air also provides gaseous nitrogen used by plant to manufacture proteins.
  • Air is the habitat of most organisms, e.g. birds and insects.
  • It makes life more meaningful and comfortable.

6. Benefits of Mineral Resources Conservation

  • Mineral resources provide fuel, e.g. coal, petroleum and natural gas, for use.
  • They are used for construction purposes, e.g. iron, zinc and aluminium.
  • Some are sources of ornamentals, e.g. gold, silver and bronze. obruds
  • Some are used for industrial development, e.g. diamond, iron, copper and silver.
  • Minerals are sources of foreign exchange.
  • They also provide employment, e.g. miners, drillers and marketers.


1. Establishment of agencies for
conservation: Agencies are established to ensure that these natural resources are conserved, e.g. preservation of wildlife, forest
resources, water resources, air, soil and mineral resources.

Examples of agencies for conservation are:

  • Nigerian Conservation Foundation,
  • Forest departments,
  • Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA),
  • River Basin Development Authorities (RBDA),
  • Ministries of Agriculture,
  • Department of Wildlife Conservation.

2. Establishment of game reserves or national parks: The game reserves or national parks serve for the protection of wildlife, rare or endangered species and for recreational purposes as well as Scientific purposes.

Some game reserves in Nigeria include:

  • Yankari game reserve in Bauchi State
  • Mamu river forest reserve in Anambra
  • Borgu game reserve in Niger State
  • Shasha river forest in Ogun State
  • Olomu forest reserve in Kwara State
  • Zamfara forest reserve in Zamfara State.

3. Making of conservation laws, edicts or decrees: These laws, edicts or decrees are made by the government to regulate the felling of trees, hunting or exploitation of endangered species or indiscriminate exploitation of mineral resources. These laws must be obeyed.

4. Conservation education: Conservation education serves to inform the populace about the need to conserve natural resources and the
consequences of extermination or exhaustion of such resources like trees, wildlife and minerals.

5. Setting standards for pollution
control: These standards help to protect land, water and air resources from certain level of pollution from industries, vehicles, power plants and homes.


The following problems or difficulties are encountered in the process of conserving natural resources.

  1. Soil erosion caused by natural wind, rainfall and run-offs
  2. Land, air and water pollution occurrence of natural disaster such as earthquakes and floods.
  3. Overgrazing caused by domestic livestock.
  4. Indiscriminate hunting, leading to eradication of wildlife.
  5. Indiscriminate bush burning and felling of timber leading to eradication of wild plants and animals. Indiscriminate fishing, leading to depletion of aquatic life.
  6. Adoption of poor farming methods, e.g. bush fallowing, shifting cultivation and continuous cropping which leads to depletion of soil nutrients.
  7. Problem of oil spillage which leads to loss of terrestrial and aquatic life.

See previous lessons in Biology

Lesson Evaluation / Test

1. What are the reasons for protection of land and wild life from destruction and extinction?
2. State why various conservation laws should be obeyed.
3. Discuss problems and difficulties
a associated with conservation.
4. Discuss the need to conserve petroleum and natura gas.
State methods of conservation of the following:
a. soil
b. water
c. air
Questions answered correctly? Bravo🥰
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