Lesson Note

Subject: Biology

Topic: Conservation of Natural Resources I

Lesson Objective: by the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

  1. Define conservation;
  2. With examples mention the two types of natural resources;
  3. Enumerate reasons for protection of land and wild life from destruction and extinction;
  4. State why various conservation laws should be obeyed.

Definition: Conservation is defined as the planned or controlled exploitation or judicious use of natural resources to ensure their continuous availability and to preserve the quality or original nature of the environment. In other
words, conservation is the preservation of natural resources from loss, waste or exploitation through rational use and to ensure their continued use or availability and preserve the quality or original nature of the natural resources.
Natural resources can be renewable or non-renewable.
A. Renewable natural resources: These are natural resources that are recoverable. Examples are rain, animals, plants, water, air, food and soil.
B. Non-renewable natural resources:
These are resources which when
exhausted cannot be replaced
recovered. Examples are mainly mineral resources like petroleum, coal, tin and copper.


  1. To prevent destruction of natural environment or to allow for continued use of natural resources for man’s benefits.
  2. To preserve rare and valuable species
  3. of plants and animals for the future
  4. generation or to save them from extinction or permanent destruction.
  5. To preserve naturally beautiful sceneries for their aesthetic values.
  6. To promote the recycling of some scarce mineral resources, e.g. water.
  7. To prevent the destruction of natural ecosystem; this will allow the organisms in the ecosystem to survive.
  8. Forest which provides medicinal materials must be conserved to ensure easy availability and continued existence.
  9. Natural resources, e.g. wild life, forest and minerals provide basis for research

Natural Resources that Need to be
Natural resources that need to be conserved include wildlife, water, forest, soil, air and mineral resources.


Methods of Conserving Wildlife
Establishment of game or forest reserves.

  • Establishment of zoological gardens.
  • Control of hunting to prevent extinction of some animal species.
  • Prohibition of killing or poaching of animals in game reserves.
  • Prohibition of bush burning as this may lead to migration or displacement of wildlife.
  • Prohibition of deforestation and encouragement of afforestation or reafforestation.
  • Creation of awareness on the values of wildlife.
  • Prevention of pollution to prevent the destruction of aquatic life.

Endangered Species: These are organisms that have become depleted or rare due to human activities or natural disaster. Those organisms have become so disturbed that they may be lost forever or become extinct.

Factors Responsible for the Decline of Wildlife

1. Commercial hunting which kills off animals indiscriminately;
2. industrialization which involves clearing of forests;
3. for various purposes/construction/farming/ urbanization; – destruction of habitats of wildlife by human activities
4. bush burning/noise pollution leads to wildlife migration,
5. environmental pollution which releases dangerous materials that degrades environment making it unbearable for the wildlife;

6. massive/excessive tree felling to make charcoal/domestic uses;
7. lack ofawareness/inadequate education of populace on the need for conservation;
8. lack of adequate funding to enforce conservation policy.

Ways by which the Government can
Control Decline of Wildlife:
(i) establishment of forestry departments;
(i) establishment of Environment Protection Agency to improve the situation
(iii) creation of Parks and Games Reserves
(iv) to preserve/maintain plants and animals in their natural environment;
(V) conservation education carried out through tree planting campaigns against bush burning/tree felling/poaching;
(vi) conservation laws to regulate tree felling poaching/hunting of wild animals and bush burnings
(vii) establishment of zoological gardens in preserving endangered species.

See previous lessons in Biology

Lesson Evaluation / Test

  1. Define conservation.
  2. With examples mention the two types of natural resources.
  3. What are the reasons for protection of land and wild life from destruction and extinction?
  4. State why various conservation laws should be obeyed.

Questions answered correctly? Bravo😍

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