1. Which political system allows only
one ideology for the state? A. Socialism B. Aristocracy C. Communalism D. Capitalism
2. In a representative government, citizens exercise their political power A. directly. B, indirectly. C. in reverence or the political system. D. under undue political pressure.
3. The essence of the concept of devolution is to cater for the interest of the A. ruling government. B. majority. C. minority. D. rule of law.
4. A country’s constitution may be derived from which one of the following sources? A. Educated elites B. Civil society organizations C. Civil disobedience D. Customs and conventions
5. One major problem associated with the cabinet system of government is
the A. abuse of power. B. frequent
change of government. C. large num-
ber of ministers. D. supremacy of the
6. Representative governments around the world pay attention to public opinion because of the following factors except A. protection of the government from media scrutiny. B indication of government in good standing with the people. C. provision of feedback on implementation of government policies. D. national security concerns.
7. The determination and execution of
government policies is the core function of the A. Public Complain
Commission B. Public Service Com-
mission. C. Civil Service. D. Judicial
8. Public corporation has a legal personality which means that A. no legal suit can be brought against it. B. it can sue and be sued. C. it has ultimate power to make its own laws. D. there is a legal department that represents it.
9. Local Government authorities may
not receive cooperation from the local
people due to the issue of A. top bottom approach to development. B. accessibility to internet facilities. C. lack of support for the ruling government. D. non availability of spiritual centres.
10. Delegated legislation can be controlled by A. report writing. B. press conferences. C. parliamentary question time. D. threat of secession.
11. A one party system imposed by law with all other parties proscribed is A. a socialist party system. B. a de jure one party system. C. a communist political system. D. an elitist party system.
12. Multi-party system is saddled with the problem of A. divisiveness. B limited choice. C. weak opposition. D. political consciousness.
13. One of the importance of voting in a democracy is that, it A. is less expensive. B. ensures development for all voters. C. commits citizens to the political system. D. ensures winner takes all policy.
14. An electoral system in which the electorate elects a small group of people who in turn elects political office holders is known as A. general election. B. second ballot system. C. electoral college. D. local election.
15. Most pressure groups especially in
West Africa fail to achieve their goals
as a result of A. good governance. B.
charisma of the president. C. transparency of the legislature. D. corrupt leadership.
16. A pressure group which resorts to violence as a means of pressing home its demands is described as A. anomic. B. associational. C. labour agitation. D.attitudinal.
17. Press control is necessary particularly in the area of A. the economy. B. auditor general’s report. C. state security and secrets. D. foreign trade.
18. The media helps to enrich discourse on national issues through its A. marketing B. editorial comments. C sales and advertisement. D. correspondents.
19. Information dissemination and communication n a political environment had been made faster and easier with the advent of A. educated practitioners. B. press censorship. government spokesmen. D. social media.
20. The passing of laws by an arm of government to regulate society is the function of the A. judiciary. 3. executive. C. legislature. D police.
21. Militant nationalism in British West Africa after World War II sought to A. kill British nationals. B. overthrow colonialism. C. stop the export of raw materials. D. stop the denigration of the African culture.
22. Proto-nationalism was a movement limited to the demands for A. immediate end to colonialism. B. reforms of the political class and respect for African religion. C. western education. D. social amenities and political participation.
23. The youth movements across British West African territories served as a spring board for the formation of A. militant groups to fight and kill British officials. B. political parties to champion the course of self-rule. C. committees to represent the people. D. associations in pursuit of justice for the people
24. A country’s foreign policy is foremost driven by A. economy. B. location. C. natural resources. D. national interest.
25. The first inter-territorial political
movement organized in the 1920s
which sought to bring all the British West African territories fight the colonial establishment was the A. Aborigines Right Protection Society. B. West African Youth League
C. National Congress of British West
Africa. D. West African Students
26. The African Union is unable to play its role on the global political scene very well due to the A. inadequate system of education bequeathed by the colonialist. B. low level of wages in the member countries. C. outbreak of pandemic on the African continent. D. divided loyalty among member states.
27. Which of the following options does the Commonwealth of Nations commit resources to? A. Use of a commo Currency B. Superiority of the British Crown C. British leadership on all matters of diplomacy D. Promotion of representative democracy
28. Which summit drew the road map
for the implementation ot the African
Union? A. Sirte Summit B. Lusaka
Summit C. Lome Summit D. Lagos
29. Once of the benefits which the West African states derive from the United Nations is A. equal opportunities of appointments to its highest office. B. permanent membership of the Security Council. C. greater access to all the organs of the United Nations. D. total eradication of poverty from the African continent.
30. The Atlantic Charter gave birth to
the A. Commonwealth of Nations. 5. Allied powers. C. United Nations. D.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
31. Which of the following factors do
not influence a country’s foreign policy? A. Human resource B. Geographical location C. System of education and number of universities D. International laws and conventions
32. In which political system does the
government control every aspect of a
citizen’s life? A. Communism B. Dictatorship C. Totalitarianism D. Aristocracy.
33. The administrative head of the ministry is the A official of the ruling
government. B. general manager. C.
permanent secretary. D. chief coordinating officer.
34. The sovereignty of a state can be limited to a great extent by A. Rule of Law. B. Separation of Powers. C. International laws and conventions. D. Legislative Assembly.
35. A coalition government is a common feature of a A. two party system. B multi-party system. C. one party system D. non-party system.
36. The appointment of judges is based on the recommendation of the A. Civil Service Commission. B. Public Commission. C. Eminent persons in society. D. Judicial Service.
unction ot political parties? A. Policy vice
37. Which of the following options is not a implementation B. political socialization C. Political education D. Aggression C. agitation of interest.
38. In an election, Secret ballot is described as the process where the voter A. is screened off to conceal the vote. B. cast the vote in a sealed box. C. is assisted to cast the vote. D. is scarched before casting the vote.
39. In which system of government does the legislature pass a vote of no confidence the government? A. Federal B.Cabinet C. De jure D. Monarchical
40. The concept of social justice implies that the state must ensure A. Sharing of political power with opponents. B security for multi-national businesses. C.cquality of citizens. D. fairness to foreign nationals.
41. The basic human rights of citizens in state are A. freedom of movement,
free education and free health. B free
social services, speech and religion. C. right to life, liberty and property. D.
right to higher education, property and freedom of thought.
42. Aquasi-federal structure is so arranged in order for the A. centre to coordinate national level programmes. B. component units to breakaway at will. C. citizens to have dual allegiance and dual Citizenship. D. president to amend the Constitution at will
43. When a superior court declares an
action of the executive ultra-vires, it
means that A. the executive should leave power. B. a vote of no confidence had been passed on the government. C. the judiciary is more action powerful than the executive. D. the action is illegal and of no effect.
44. Which of the following options does not constitute the main objectives of the United Nations? A. The maintenance of international peace and security B. The promotion of the well-being of the peoples of the world C. International cooperation D. The use of force to comply with its provisions.
45. The Economic Community of West
African States was established with
the following aims except to A. use
force to depose unconstitutional regimes. B. improve the living standards of its people. C. contribute to the progress and development of the African continent. D. foster relations among member states.
46. The process of international integration arising from the inter-change of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture is known as A. national interest. B. globalization. C. geopolitics. D. interest aggregation
47 One negative effect of colonialism
on the people of West Africa over the
years is the A. introduction of modern idea of governance. B. creation of large political units. C. change of the
socio-political systems of living D. development of political institutions.
48. The Council of Elders in the pre-colonial political institutions of West Africa best served on the Council as … A. warriors of the state. B. go-between the gods and the people. C. Custodians of the wealth of the state. D. representatives of the commoners.
49. Public corporations are struggling in the West African States as a result of A. heavy social and political cost. B.
private-public partnership. C. public scrutiny and accountability. D. direct
50. The following options are today the biggest threat to the democracy of West African States except A. election disputes and related violence. B. military Intervention in politics. C. youth unemployment. D. non involvement of traditional rulers in politics.
PAPER 2: ESSAY
ELEMENTS OF GOVERNMENT
1. Identify five reasons for which citizens lose trust in government.
2. In what five ways can the electoral
management body ensure fair play in
an electoral contest in Nigeria?
3. Highlight five negative impacts on a
state should the judiciary fail to live
up to its constitutional mandate.
4. Identify five differences between the state as an entity and government as an institution.
5. Explain five reasons for the decline in public trust of the media in your country.
POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN WEST AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Answer two questions only from this section.
6. Identify five ways in which traditional rulers controlled their subjects in pre-colonial Nigeria.
7. Outline five significant provisions of the 1989 Third Republican Constitution which deepened the democratic development of Nigeria.
8. Highlight five benefits which the
adoption of federalism has brought to
the political development of Nigeria.
(a) What is meant by E-Government
b) Explain five benefits which Nigeria
stands to gain in adopting E-Governance.
9. Highlight five compelling reasons for which Nigeria interacts with international organizations.
SOLUTION TO OBJECTIVE AND ESSAY QUESTIONS WITH DETAILED EXPLANATION
1. A: socialism
Socialism as a political and eco
nomic ideology advocates state ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange. In a socialist state, only one political party is allowed to exist, that is, a socialist state is always a one-party state. Examples are China, North Korea, Cuba etc.
2. B: indirectly
A representative government is a
form of government where the people
are governed through elected representatives. In other Words, people exercise their political power and participate in the government indirectly through their representatives n government. All modern democracies are examples
of a representative government.
3. C: minority
Devolution involves the transfer of
governmental powers, functions and
responsibilities to lower levels of government. The essence of devolution is to ensure that every shade of interests is catered for, especially minority groups.
4. D: customs and conventions
A constitution refers to the rules,
regulations, principles and laws
through which a state is governed.
Sources of a country’s constitution
include: Constitutional conferences,
judicial precedent, legislative enactments, customs and convention etc.
5. B: frequent change of government
In a cabinet or parliamentary system of government, there is high tendency of frequent change of government especially when the government is formed by a coalition of different political parties.
6. A: protection of the government from media scrutiny
Public opinion refers to the aggregate views of the majority of the citizens on a specific policy or programme of the government. Public opinion provides direction for government policies, provides feedback on the implementation of programs, etc. It is not meant to shield the government form the scrutiny of the media.
The Civil Service is the agency of
government responsible for the execution/implementation of the policies and programmes of the government.
8. B: A public corporation is established by an Act of Parliament to provide essential services to the people at a reduced cost. By virtue of law, a public corporation is a legal entity that can sue and be sued.
Delegated legislation refers to laws made by non-legislative bodies. Delegated legislation can be controlled through: parliamentary control, Judicial control, etc.
11. A: See question 1.
Multi-party system is where there are more than two political parties with nearly equal strength in a country. In a multi-party system, citizens are fragmented into different political parties thereby breeding division/divisiveness among thee people.
Voting at elections affords the
people to take part in the political decision-making process of their state
An electoral college is used in indirect election.
Pressure groups are groups that
seek to influence government policies
in the interest of their members. One
of the problems confronting pressure
groups is the corrupt tendencies of
An anomic pressure group lacks
structure, leadership and organization and often resort its objectives.
Press control is necessary in order
to prevent the leakage of some classified information that can affect the security of the state.
Editorial comments are written by newspapers on a specific subject matter that has to do with socio-political issues in the country.
The advent of social media has
made the transmission ol messages and information faster especially
through the various social media platform such as: YouTube, Facebook,
Whatsapp, Instagram, Twitter etc.
Law-makıng is the core function of
After the Second World War (1939-1945) the focus of the nationalist struggles was to dislodge colonialism and gain political independence.
23. B: An example of such youth movement was the Lagos Youth Movement which metamorphosed into the Nigerian Youth Movement in 1936.
24. D: Foreign policy refers to the underlying factors that guide a country’s interaction with its external environment, that is, other countries and international organisations. A country’s foreign policy is largely influenced by the country’s national interest
25. C: National Congress of British West Africa, founded in 1920 by Cascley Hayford was the first of its kind to bring educated elite from British West Africa colonies of Gold Coast (Ghana), Nigeria, Sierra-Leone together to project a common front against the colonial government.
26. D: One of the problems confronting the African Union is the divided loyalty of member-states. Some states are still loyal to their former colonial masters.
One of the core objectives of the Commonwealth of Nations is the promotion of democracy and good governance among its members.
The Sirte Declaration on September 9, 1999 in Libya paved the way for the emergence ot the African Union.
29. C: Through the membership of the
United Nations, West African countries have benefited tremendously from the programmes of the UN and its agencies, (such as WHO, UNESCO, FAO etc) in the areas of health-care, environment, education, finance etc.
The Atlantic Charter, signed in
1941 between President Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and others laid the foundation for the emergence of the United Nations in 1945.
Factors that can influence a country’s foreign policy include: Geographical location, population, availability of resources, military strength etc. The state of education or number
of universities does not determine a
country’s foreign policy.
In a totalitarian stale, every aspect
of citizens’ life is controlled by the
A ministry is headed by the Permanent Secretary who serves as the administrative head of the ministry. The Commissioner at the state level or the Minister at the federal level serves as the political head of the ministry.
A state’s sovereignty can be limited by international laws, treaties and
35. B: A coalition government is a government formed by two or more political parties as a result of the inability of one party to command a majority sufficient enough to form the government. This is only possible in a parliamentary democracy with multi-party system.
The Judicial Service Commission
is responsible for recommending judges for promotion.
A political party is a group that
seeks to capture governmental powers
through elections. Functions of political parties include: Political education and socialization, interest articulation and aggregation etc. The function of policy implementation is that of the civil Service.
The essence of a secret ballot is to protect the identity of the voter.
A vote of no confidence is used
by the parliament to remove the
prime-minister from office in a cabinet system of government.
Social justice implies that the state
should ensure equity and equality for
all its citizens.
According to John Locke, the three basic rights of the citizens that the state must protect are: Right to life, right to liberty and right to property.
Quasi-federal structure combines the features of a federal system and unitary system.
The judiciary can check the legislature and executive arms of government by declaring their actions as unconstitutional, ultra vires or null and void.
The United Nations does not use force to enforce compliance.
ECOWAS was not setup to depose any government in the sub-region.
The advent of colonialism in West Africa, nay, Africa in general, has reconfigured the social, economic and
political lives of the peoples of the
The Council of Elders was com-
posed of the eldest men in each of the families that constitute the community, hence it was the representative of the commoners.
One of the major problems militating against the survival, efficiency and effectiveness of public corporations in West African States is the high level of political interference in their operations which has resulted in heavy social and political cost thereby crippling the public corporations.
The non-involvement of traditional rulers in politics does not in any way pose a threat to democracy.
2022 WAEC GOVERNMENT THEORY SOLUTION
1. Five reasons for which citizens lose
trust in government are:
i. Widespread corruption in government
ii. High level of unemployment
ii. High cost of living/high rate of inflation
iv. State of insecurity e.g. armed robberies, kidnappings, terrorist attacks, banditry
v. Widespread poverty
vi. Inability to provide social services/social amenities e.g. education,
vii. Extravagance/opulence on the
part of government officials
vi. Arrogance of power by public officers
ix. Disregard for constitutionalism/
Rule of Law
x. Victimization of political opponents
2. Five ways the electoral management body can ensure fair play in an electoral contest in Nigeria are:
i. It should be truly neutral in its operations
ii. Stakeholders should be involved
in all the electoral processes
ii. It should compile credible and updated voters’ registration.
iv. Adequate provision of election
v. Adequate training of electoral officers and assigns
vi. Provision of transparent ballot boxes
Vii. Ensure adequate security at the
Viii. Undertake regular and effective
IX. Open counting of ballots at polling booths/units/centres
X. Avoidance of gerrymandering
3. Five negative impacts on a state the judiciary should fail to live up to its constitutional mandate are:
i. State of lawlessness and recklessness
ii. Abuse of right and liberties of citizens
iii. Loss of confidence in the judiciary/justice delivery system
iv. Upsurge in corrupt practices
V. Increase in crime rate
vi. Erodes investor confidence in the
vii. The life and security of personnel
of the judiciary is put at risk
vii. Credibility of the judiciary suffers/it creates credibility crises for the
4 Five differences between government as an institution are:
5. Five reasons for the decline in the public trust of the media in your country are;
i. Politicization of the media/Perceived partisanship of the media
ii. Marginalization of the opposition parties and members
ii. Unrepresentative of minority views/opinions
iv. Affiliation of the media with the ruling government
Employment of media personalities by the government
vi. Inaccurate reportage of events and developments by the media
vii. Upsurge in the reportage of fake news
viii. High level of unprofessional conducts
iX. Perceived corruption of media practitioners/media houses
Encouraging actions that are threats to national security.
6. Five ways in which traditional rulers controlled their subjects in pre-colonial Nigeria are:
i. Through their intermediary role as
representatives of the gods
ii. Powers to appoint and dismiss officials
iii. Adjudication of laws/settlement of
V. Enforcement of customs, traditions
vi. Punish law breakers/deviants in society/Banishment of criminals
Vii. Organize and supervise communal labour
viii. Imposition of levies/taxes
IX. Law making functions
X. Formulation and implementation of policies
7. Five significant provisions of the 1989 Third Republican Constitution
which deepened the democratic development of Nigeria are:
i.Provided for the establishment of traditional councils to promote the culture of the people
ii. Reduced the age for elective positions with the aim of increase political participation
ii. Recall of political office holders in the legislature to make them accountable,
responsive and responsible to the people
iv. Creation of federal executive bodies led to job creation and better service delivery Supremacy of the constitution to prevent dictatorship
vi. Abuja was created as the seat of government to emphasize the federal character
Vii. Centralization of constitutional functions and fiscal resources
vii. Entrenchment of Fundamental Human Rights to provide adequate protection for the rights of the people
ix.. Entrenchment of separation of powers
X. Retention of the Supreme Court as the highest court of the land
8. Five benefits which the adoption of federalism has brought to the political development of Nigeria:
Governance is well-defined and made
easier as spelt out in the constitution
ii. Local issues receive prompt attention from the local government
iii. Issues of diversities and plurality are addressed by the Constitution
iv. It has offered protection to the minority groups/interest
Citizens feel a part of the political process and system/sense of belonging.
vi. It ensures the protection of Nigeria
against external attack
vii. Agricultural issues are addressed
viii. State governors have better under
standing of their states, powers and
ix. The system allows for effective checks and balances between the centre and components unit it has encouraged local initiative
Stay connected for more
Good luck 👍