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Lesson Note

Subject: Civic Education

Topic:  Emergency

Lesson Objectives: by the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

  1. Define the term Emergency;
  2. Mention incidents that occur during period of emergency;
  3. State ways of reducing emergency in a state or nation.
Lesson Summary Aids: See reference materials below contents.

Lesson Summary / Discussion

Emergency can be defined as urgent situations that require the suspension of the constitution in order to restore law and order. During periods of emergency government institutions such as legislature, executive and judiciary may not be able to carry out their regular functions and citizens may be restricted of their human rights until the emergency is lifted.


  • Partial or temporal suspension of the constitution.
  • The principles of rule of law may be ignored.
  • Movement may be restricted to certain areas or hours of the day.
  • Some arrests can be carried out without any warrant.
  • There may be restriction of freedom of expression and the press.
  • Human rights may be violated for the interest of security.
  • It can lead to involvement of military in politics.


  1. Respect for Constitution: A situation where people have respect for the constitution and laws of the land there will be reduction in emergency cases.
  2. Promotion of Human Rights: Respect for human rights in conduct and relationship with other people will reduce emergency cases in the society.
  3. Good Government: A situation where the government is responsive and responsible to the people there may not be any need for emergency.
  4. Socio-Economic Development: The provision of basic infrastructure can reduce the causes of emergency. Where there is socio-economic development people are able to live in harmony with one another thereby promoting peace and orderliness.
  5. Public Enlightenment: People should be educated on the need to promote the social wellbeing of the society. They should be taught their civic responsibilities to the government and the society at large.
  6. Respect for Democratic Principles: A state where people have respect for democratic principles such as rule of law, popular participation and fundamental rights there will reduction of emergency cases.

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Lesson Evaluation / Test

  1. Define the term Emergency.
  2. Mention incidents that occur during period of emergency.
  3. State ways of reducing emergency in a state or nation.

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