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Lesson Note

Subject: Social Studies

Class: JS3

Topic:  Socialization

Lesson Objectives: by the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

1. Define socialization;
2. Mention and explain two types of socialization;
3. State are the significances of socialization;4. List the processes of socialization;
5. Explain three processes of socialization;
6. Explain three processes of socialization;
7. List five positive effects of socialization.
8. Mention at least three negative effects of socialization;
9. Name and explain the agents of socialization;
10. Mention five importance of socialization;
11. State the disadvantages of socialization.

Socialization is the process by which individuals acquires the languages, belief, values and technical skills of his society. Socialization is a life-long process from which we are always learning. The process of learning the culture of a community is called socialization.

Types of Socialization:
There are two types of socialization, they are:
1. Primary socialization
2. Secondary socialization
Primary Socialization: This is when the child is born and helpless. Most of what he learns are through the efforts of older persons.
Secondary Socialization: This is the time a person is old enough to learn by himself. He learns new roles, new skills and new ways.

The Significance of Socialization:

  • Socialization prepares the new member to fit into his community.
  • It makes the new member know, understand and participate in the culture of his community.
  • It enables desirable values to be passed from one generation to another.
  • It promotes peaceful co-existence and social inter-action among people.
  • It prepares and teaches the people their roles in the community.

Individuals are socialized into their community through five main processes. They are:
  1. Education (Direct Learning)
  2. Apprenticeship
  3. Incidental learning
  4. Learning from models
  5. Roles learning
Education: This is also known as direct learning. It is a conscious way of learning. It may be formal or informal education. It may take place in the four-walls of the classroom or outside the classroom.
Apprenticeship: This is non-formal education. Here, a person is trained under a master trainer in a practical ways. E.g. carpentry, hair dressing, blacksmithing, tailoring. Etc.
Incidental Learning: Here, a child learns unconsciously from his parents, age group or from his immediate environment.
Learning from Model: Children often copy the way their parents or older siblings behave some even try to behave as their favorite artist or an admired individual does either the way they dress or their mannerism.
Role Learning: A person learns a new role in the community through information given to him. They learn some of these roles through indoctrination, induction and imitation.

There are many agents of socialization through which the individuals are socialized into the community. They are:

  • The family and home
  • Peer group
  • The school or educational institutions
  • Religious organizations
  • Mass media
  • Age group
  • The community
  • Voluntary organizations
The Family: This is the child’s first experience of the world.it is the primary agent of socialization; since we all know that every child is born into a family. The socialized adult members of the family teach the child the language, basic values such as how to speak to elders etc.
Peer Group: As a child grows up, he attends school and plays with his age group. These playmates or peer groups have their own rules and regulations which members must obey. eg A child learns how to behave in a group.
The School: The process of socialization which began at home continues at school. At school, the child is given an all-round education in physical development(psychomotor),attitudinal development(affective)and intellectual development(cognitive).
Religious Institution: Through religious institution, the members are taught desirable values such as love, faithfulness, honesty. etc.
The Mass Media: This include the radio, television, newspapers ,magazine, .etc. .All these increase the awareness of children and adults about what is happening around them and all over the world.
Age Group: In any traditional society, age group is the most important agency of socialization.
The Community: The community defines the acceptable ways by which members should behave. It praises and honors those who obey its rules and regulations while those who disobeyed are disgraced and punished.
Voluntary Organization: These include Red Cross, boy brigade, and rotary club. Etc. They impact certain skills and values on its members.

The quality of each agent of socialization such as family, peer group, the school etc, largely determines the effects of socialization on the people. It may be of negative or positive effects.

Positive Effects or Importance of Socialization:
  • It enables the individual to play their roles in the society.
  • It inculcates a sense of discipline on individual in the society.
  • It inculcates in individual a sense of moral responsibility.
  • It develops a communal spirit in individual
  • It enables individual to learn and appreciate his culture and other cultures.
  • It helps us to learn from one another.
  • It ensures the transmission of our culture from one generation to another.

Negative Effects or Disadvantages of Socialization:
  • Displaying of negative values by the mass media has made some individual become morally irresponsible.
  • Negative peer pressure has increased crime rate in the society.
  • Acculturation through over-dependent on western culture
  • Infiltration of negative influences such as pornography through the internet.
  • A morally backward community tends to produce immoral citizen.

Done studying? See previous lessons on Social Studies.

Take a quick test for this lesson

1. Define socialization.
2. Mention and explain two types of socialization.
3. What are the significances of socialization?4. List the processes of socialization.
5. Explain three processes of socialization.
6. Explain three processes of socialization.
7. List five positive effects of socialization.
8. Mention at least three negative effects of socialization.
9. Name and explain the agents of socialization.
10. Mention five importance of socialization.
11. State the disadvantages of socialization.

Test answered correctly? Bravo!

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