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1. Give the Meaning of culture;
2. State explain the Components of culture
3. Mention and explain the features or elements of culture.
MEANING OF CULTURE
Culture is the total way of life of a group of people that distinguishes them from others. It includes people’s beliefs, their works of art and craft, the language they speak, the tools they make, their ways of dressing, the technology they develop and the various institutions they set up to achieve societal goals.
Culture is not static, but dynamic. In other words, it does not remain the same forever but changes from time to time. It is a continuous process. It is transmitted from one generation to another. People learn their culture as they perform new roles as pupils or students in a school, a father at home or as a president of a country.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
There are two components or aspects of culture. They are:
1. Material Aspect of Culture: This consists mainly of those things that are made by a society in order to satisfy the needs of its people. Examples are houses for shelter and protection; the tools for agriculture; the weapons for hunting and protection; the cloth and clothes made to suit the conditions of the environment; and the work of art and craft.
2. Non-Material Aspect of Culture: This aspect of culture consists of those things we cannot see like religion, music, language, morals, values, folklores, literature, dancing styles, technology, etc.
FEATURES OF CULTURE
Some ways of looking at culture include:
1. Language: This is one of the most important ways of identifying a group of people. It is a means of transmitting our culture from one generation to another. There are over 250 indigenous languages in Nigeria. Proverbs are an important aspect of speech in Nigeria.
2. Religion: This is an important aspect of culture. Each cultural group has its own traditional way of relating with the supernatural before the advent of Christianity and Islam.
3. Mode of Dressing: The way a group of people dress is another feature of culture. For example, Hausa-Fulanis wrap their heads with a piece of cloth; wear ‘danshiki’ while their women often wear clothes that cover all parts of their bodies.
4. Legends: the belief and story of each ethnic group about the origin of man and the world is another feature of culture.
5. Folklores: These are stories about man and animals such as tortoise and elephant. It serves as a means of entertainment and a form of moral education.
6. Arts and crafts: Each cultural group has its unique art and craft in form of carvings, metal works, painting, sculptures, wood work, etc. arts and Crafts are products of our physical environment.
7. Games and Entertainment: Each cultural group has its own game such as ‘Ayo and Okoto’ in Yoruba land. Entertainment is in form of singing. The Yorubas play musical instrument such as ‘gangan’, ‘bata’ and ‘dundun’ while ‘shantu’ and ‘samban’ sets of drums are popular among the Hausa-Fulanis.
8. Food and Drinks: In the Nigeria traditional societies, only solid food is recognized as real food while liquid is regarded as mere refreshment. Palm wine is popular among the Yorubas and the Igbos. ‘Burukutu’ and ‘sekete’ are popular in Hausa land. Pounded yam and yam flour are common solid food in Yoruba land while ‘Tuwo’ and ‘Danwake’ are popular among Hausa-Fulanis.
Skills and Tools (Technology): Before the arrival of the Europeans in Nigeria, there were small industries made up of small workshops. Making of ivory and brass wares were the preoccupation of the Binis. The Ijaws and the Itsekiris were noted for salt-making while the Akoko-Edos and the Iseyins produced clothes, etc.
- What is culture?
- List two components of culture.
List five features of culture.Explain the listed features of culture.
Explain the listed features of culture.