Welcome Great Scholar! In our Basic Science And Technology lesson today, we will be looking at “changes that occur in Non-living things”. Do have a great moment studying with us. Should you missed our previous lesson on Changes in Living Things, click here as it will help you understand this lesson better.
Subject: Basic Science And Technology
Topic: Changes Non-Living Things (Physical And Chemical Change)
Learning Objectives: By the end of the Lesson, the learners should be able to:
- Explain changes in nonliving things;
- Identify and explain the types of changes in non-living things;
- Perform simple experiment on physical change and chemical change;
- Examine the differences between physical change and chemical change.
CHANGES IN NON-LIVING THINGS
You have learnt in our previous lesson that matter can be a living thing or non-living thing. You have also learnt that matter exists in three states: solid, liquid, gaseous states. Matter undergoes some changes when exposed to some conditions like heat, light or air. Matter can change from solid to liquid state, liquid to gaseous state and from gaseous to liquid state again, depending on the temperature. Matter undergoes different types of changes.
In this lesson, you will learn about changes in non-living things, and the characteristics of these changes.
TYPES OF CHANGES IN NON-LIVING THINGS
Non-living things do not grow, they do not move or feel. However, non-living things can undergo changes. They can be made to change from one state to another. They can be made to form new substances. They can combine with other substances to form new substances. Changes in which new substances are formed are referred to as chemical changes. The changes in which no new substances are formed are called physical changes. The following activities will help you to observe and identify these two types of changes in non-living things.
ACTIVITY 1: OBSERVING THE EFFECTS OF HEAT ON SUGAR SOLUTION
Sugar, evaporating dish, beaker, water, tripod, stand, burner, tablespoon, gauze.
PROCEDURE (Individual experiment)
- Dissolve a tablespoon of sugar in 5cmᶟ of water beaker,
- Record your observation,
- Pour what is formed into an evaporating dish,
- Heat gently over the burner until the water evaporates completely,
- Record your observation,
- What type of change do you observe?
Demonstration of Physical change
You might have observed that first the sugar dissolved in water to form a solution, but when heated the water evaporated and the sugar solidified again. No new substances were formed in the evaporating dish.
ACTIVITY 2: HEATING SALT
Common salt, evaporating dish, beaker, water, tripod stand, burner, tablespoon
As in activity 1 above
Record your observation
As in activity 1, the common salt dissolved in water, and when heated, the water evaporated leaving only the solid salt in the dish. No new substance were formed.
ACTIVITY: 3 HEATING PARAFFIN WAX
A piece of white paraffin wax, tripod stand, burner, gauze, evaporating dish.
PROCEDURE (INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENT: YOU ARE TO DO THIS ALONE)
- Place the piece of wax into your evaporating dish.
- Place the evaporating dish on the gauze over the burner
- Heat gently till there is a change in state
- Record your observation
- Keep the wax in the dish to cool for about five minutes
- What do you observe ?
You might have noticed that what you observed is a little different from what you observe in Activities 10.1 and 10.2. whereas the substances in Activities 10.1 and 10.2 solidified when heated, the wax in Activity 10.3 melted into a liquid when heated, but solidified again into a solid white wax when cooled. Again no new substance was formed.
ACTIVITY 4: BURNING WOOD
A small piece of dry wood that can burn easily, matches, a crucible and a tripod stand.
PROCEDURE (CLASS EXPERIMENT)
Your teacher will provide a piece of wood and other materials
Place the piece of wood in the crucible
Place the crucible on a tripod stand
Strike the match and light the wood
Allow the wood to burn out
Record your observation
Demonstration of Chemical Change
Note that it is better to use a piece of wood that can burn by itself. The use of kerosene or oil may introduce another element into the activity.
You might have observed that the wood burnt out in a black substance (charcoal). The original wood cannot be recovered.
ACTIVITY 5: BURNING OF MAGNESIUM
A length of magnesium ribbon, a pair of tongs, burner
PROCEDURE (GROUP EXPERIMENT)
This experiment is to be carried out under the guidance of the class or subject teacher. So Teachers are to organize the learners into group for space and easy supervision.
- Light the burner in your group,
- Hold a length of the magnesium ribbon on a pair of tongs,
- Hold the magnesium bearing tongs over the burner.
- What do you observe?
- Record your observation.
Demonstration of chemical change: Burning of magnesium
You might have observed that the magnesium burnt and turned into a white substance called ash. The original magnesium ribbon cannot be recovered.
What Are The Difference Between Physical And Permanent Changes? The differences can be deduced from their characteristics of which was observed during the experiments.
Characteristics of Physical change
- The original substance can easily be recovered
- New substances are not formed
- Change is temporary
Characteristics of Chemical change
- The original substance cannot be easily recovered
- New substances are formed
- Change is permanent
Done studying? See all lessons in Basic Science And Technology
Take a quick test for this lesson
1. In __ changes the original substance easily be recovered (a) chemical (b) heat (c) physical (d) solid
2. Give two examples of chemical and physical changes each.
3. List three differences between physical and chemical changes
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