Welcome To Myschoollibrary! In our Basic Science And Technology lesson today, we will be looking at another aspect of living things ” changes that occur in living things”. Do have a great moment studying with us.

Lesson Note

Subject: Basic Science And Technology

Class: JS2

Topic: Changes In Living Things (Growth And Development)

Learning Objectives: By the end of the Lesson, The learners should be able to:.

  1. Define the terms growth and development;
  2. Identify the growth and developmental changes in human;
  3. State the features of each stage of growth and development in human.


Changes In Living Things (Growth And Development)

You would have noticed that a baby does not remain the same size after birth. As the baby is fed with breast milk, there are noticeable changes such as increase in the size of the body. When this is happening, we often say that the baby is growing. As growth is taking place, other changes occur, leading to overall physical development of the baby. With time, the baby develops from infancy to childhood, to adolescence and then to adulthood as follows.
Baby (age 0-2 years)
Childhood (2-11 years)
Adolescence (11-18 years)
Adulthood (age 18 and above)

Can you imagine when you were a baby? Can you think of those changes that have since then occurred in your body? In this chapter, you will learn about growth and development as part of the changes that occurs in your body.


One of the changes that are easily noticeable in a healthy baby some weeks or months after birth is increase in height, size and weight. The food the baby eat is important in helping the body to produce new body cells that will add to the body size. The increase in size of an organism due to increase in size of cells is termed growth. In growth, the body by itself makes its own flesh to add to existing one. Growth may be measured by increase in height or weight.
Development is a series of orderly changes by which a living thing comes into maturity. These changes are different from increase in size (growth).


As you grow, the changes in your height and size is noticeable. If you compare your height and weight last year with what you are now, you will notice you have increased in both height and weight. The noticeable changes in the body size over time is termed growth change.

Growth And Developmental Stages In Human

Growth change can be determined by measurement of height and weight at time intervals while developmental changes can be observed by appearance of certain characteristic features and capabilities. Development leads to transition from one stage of life to another e.g. a baby develops from infancy to childhood, then to adolescence and to adulthood. These stages are characterized by certain features.


Examples of Growth And Development in Human Beings

Developmental changes are progressive and moves from simple to complex.


Each of the developmental stages, i.e. childhood, adolescence and adulthood is associated with some characteristics features.

1. Childhood

This is the stage from birth to puberty. It is characterize by light body weight, small size, very rapid growth particularly in the first two years of life, very active body and restlessness.

2. Puberty

Puberty is the transition stage from childhood to adolescence. It is the period when the body of a school age child turns into that of an adolescent. During this period, growth and development are observable. This stage is characterized by:
Development of secondary sexual characters such as facial hairs, mustaches, broken voice in boys, breasts and rounded buttocks in girls and pubic hairs in both boys and girls, etc;
Rapid gain in height and weight;
Well form bones i.e. bones become stronger
Very active body

3. Adolescence

Adolescence is the stage before adulthood and it’s characterized by:
No changes in height but there could be changes in weight or sizes;
Ageing indicated by appearance of grey hair, reduced elasticity of the skin, gradual decline in body functions, including decline in reproductive capacity and decline in functions of body organs e.g. the heart, the lungs and the sense organs.
The changes in adulthood are usually due to age but can include stress(anxiety) or inadequate feeding.


The development changes could either be temporary or permanent changes when they occur. The permanent changes remain for life and they are not reversible. Those features associated with each of the human developmental stages of childhood, adolescence and adulthood are permanent changes.
There are however some temporary changes. Examples include growth of pimples in male and female at adolescence, malnutrition or kwashiorkor, fatness, enlargement of stomach after a meal or intake of water. These changes are usually due to food intake and are temporary. Other examples of temporary changes are:

  • Bed wetting
  • Sweating
  • Rise in body temperature

Temporary changes may naturally disappear after sometime. They can also be corrected medically or by change in behavior, whereas permanent changes remain with the individual throughout life.

Done studying? See all lessons in Basic Science And Technology

Take a quick test for this lesson
1. Childhood is characterized by?
a. Development of secondary sexual features
b. Small size
c. Well formed reproductive system
d. Well formed bones
2. List any three growth changes in living things
3. List three examples of developmental changes in
4. State the characteristics of growth and developmental changes
5. List any four changes in human growth and development and classify them as permanent or temporary changes
Questions answered correctly? Kudos!!

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