Welcome Esteemed Scholar! In our Basic Science And Technology class today, we will be looking at the concept of “Living things and Habitat” Do have a great moment studying with us!

Lesson Note

Subject: Basic Science/Technology

Topic: Living Things (Habitat)

Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:

  1. Define the term habitat;
  2. State and explain the types of habitat;
  3. Mention some organisms and state their adaptation.

Lesson Summary

Living organism, be it plant or animal, has a particular region or place in which it dwells. There are those that stay on land and those that live in water. The kind of region or environment where an organism typically lives is called its habitat. Specifically, it approach the home where an organism inhabits. Every organism is able to modify itself to its habitat so as for it to live to tell the tale. In this bankruptcy, you may study the distinctive habitats of dwelling matters and the way they had been able to live of their precise habitats.


Different organisms are found in different habitats. There are two major habitats. These are:
1. Terrestrial habitats,
2. Aquatic habitats.


The terrestrial habitat refers to land environment. Living organisms found living in terrestrial habitats include human beings, domestic animals, wild animals and plants.
The terrestrial habitat can be arboreal (in or on trees), on the ground or under the ground. Monkeys, birds and ants are arboreal, grasscutters live on ground, while earthworms live underground. The ground habitat may be of different kinds such as tropical rainforest, savannah, grassland, semi-desert and desert.

The aquatic habitat refers to water environment. The aquatic habitat contains different kind of animals and plants that are called aquatic organisms. The organisms include: fish, whale, turtles, crocodiles, tadpoles, water lettuce, water lilies etc. Aquatic habitat can be estuarine, marine or fresh water. Estuarine refers to the river mouth where salt and fresh water meet. Examples are such as bays and lagoons. The organisms found in these areas include periwinkles and lobsters. The marine habitat includes the sea and ocean. Marine plants and animals include weeds, octopus, fish, whales and dolphins. The freshwater habitats include lakes, river, pond and streams. The organisms found in fresh water habitat include fish, crayfish and crabs.


Some species of plants and animals are found in a particular habitat and can only survive in that particular habitat. For example, there are certain species of plants and animals that can survive only in rain forest habitat and not in the desert. Also, those that are found in the desert hardly survive rainforest habitat. When different plants and animals are carefully examined, there are certain features that will be seen or found on them that enables them to live in their particular habitat. Any special feature that enables an organism live and survive in a particular habitat is called adaptation.


Plants need water and show different adaptation with respect to the availability of water in their environment. Plants that live in areas with limited rainfall, such as the desert, have special features that makes them different from other plants. The special features help them to increase their water intake and reduce water loss by transpiration.
1. They have extensive root system with a long tap root that is able to penetrate deep into the ground to tap the availability of water.
2. Some have adventitious root that spread widely to cover large areas.
3. Some have developed water storage tissues in their leaves and stems. This enables them to survive during the long dry season by using the water stored in their tissues. Plants that develop storage tissues, are called succulent., e.g. cactus.

4. Some have tiny small leaves or have their leaves reduced to green needle-like structures or tiny scales. The adaptation of the leaves help reduce the amount of moisture that will be lost to the air during transpiration.

Plants that live on water ( hydrophytes) do not have to depend on their root to absorb water. This because:

1. They have poorly developed root system.
2. They have their leaves and stem covered with thin layer of cuticle that is permeable so that water, oxygen, mineral salts, carbon dioxide are easily absorbed into the whole surface of the plant.
3. Generally, leaves of aquatic plants have large air spaces. The air spaces keep the plants buoyant and help them a

The air spaces keep the plants buoyant and help them absorb oxygen.


Fishes have the following special features that enables them live in aquatic habitat:

1. Possession of tails and fins for swimming and balancing in water.
2. They have a streamlined body shape, which allows them to move smoothly through water without being pushed back by water current.
3. They have gills that are used for breathing in water.
4. Possession of swim bladder needed by the fish for adjusting to changes in water pressure at different depths of water. This allows the fish to swim at different water depths.


Frogs and toads are described as amphibians because they can live on both land and water. They are adapted to live in both environments. The distinguishing features that enables them to live in water are:

1. Streamlined body shape
2. Webs between their toes for swimming


Most terrestrial animals that live on land share the features:
1. Lungs required for breathing on land
2. Scales on the body to reduce the absorption of water through the skin.

Done Studying? See all lessons on Basic science/Technology

Take quick test for this lesson

1. One of the following is not an adaption of a desert plant(a) poorly developed root system (b) reduced leaves (c) adventitious root (d) storage tissues on leaves and stems.
2. Name the two major kind of habitats for living things
3. Write down four kinds of living things that can be found in each of the two habitats you named in question 2.
4. State two adaptation in:
A named aquatic plant
A named terrestrial plant
A desert plant
A rainforest plant
A named aquatic animal
A named terrestrial animal

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