1 Action of Waves
Definition and terms associated within waves, waves tide, currents, coast, swash etc and erosional processes (corrosion, attrition, solution and hydraulic action)
Erosional features of waves cape, bay cliff, caves, stock, etc
Coastal deposition (beaches, spit bar etc)
Coastal deposition (beaches, spit, bar etc)
Activities: The Teacher Uses pictures, films and models to explain;
– Meaning and characteristics of waves, tides and currents
– guide discussions of erosional processes and coastal landforms
– help students identify and describe features of coastal erosion and deposition.
– Guides and supervises students as they make annotated
diagrams of landforms
– Takes students on field work to observe features of wave
erosion and deposition
Students : Draw annotated diagrams of the landforms
– Bring pictures of coastal landforms to school
– Participate in guided tour to observe coastal landforms.
Instructional Materials : Films, Pictures, Models, slides, Sketches and Annotated diagrams

2. Climate 2
Climatic types (hot, temperate, cold, desert etc
Characteristics(temperature, rainfall, etc)
Geographical distribution
Teacher : uses maps diagrams and sketches to help students identify major climatic types
– Uses the globe, maps, diagrams and sketches to explain climatic factors and their influence on weather and climate
– Guides class discussions on :
– characteristics of major climatic types
– their geographic distribution and influence of climatic types on human activities
– classification of climate
– Takes students on a study trip to a meteorological stations
3. Climatic Classification :
Greek classification(torrid, temperate and frigid), geographical distributions merits and elements. Koppen classification (A, B, C, D, E and sub categories Af, Am, Aw, Bs, Bw, Cw, Cs, CF, DF, ET and EF )
Advantage and disadvantages of Koppen classification
Students– Visit a meteorological station
– Draw diagrams and sketches to show the effects of latitude,
planetary winds, pressure, ocean currents, distance from the sea etc on climate.
– Draw a map of the world showing the distribution of climatic types/ regions
– Draw a map of the world showing Greek climatic classification system, and that, showing koppen’s classification
Instructional Materials : Atlas, Maps, slides/power points,
drawing paper, sketches and diagrams. Colour pencils , Tracing paper.

4. Environmental Resources (Contd.)
Meaning of environmental resources and types (atmospheric-sun, wind, rain, gases etc,)
Water resources -meaning, types/examples and uses
Vegetation resources ; meaning, types example and uses
Teacher : Initiates and guides discussions on ;
– Components of each type of environmental resources
– Quality of human resources in relation to size, skilled and
unskilled human resources, education and health etc,
– uses and importance of environmental resources
– Uses pictures, charts and maps to explain the meaning of
environmental resources
Students : Draw a table indicating the types of resources
– Components of the resources, their sources and uses.
Instructional Materials
– illustrative diagrams and sketches
– Documentaries
– Maps
– Video clips/tapes
5. Environmental Resources (Cont)
Mineral resources; meaning, types, uses and the problem of
mineral exploitation.
Land resources; meaning, types soils, plateau, etc and their
Human resources: meaning, types, human capital, population,
technology etc), uses etc
6. Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources :
Meaning and types of renewable and non-renewable resources
Advantages of renewable and non-renewable resources
Disadvantages of renewable and non-renewable resources
Teacher : uses pictures, charts and documentaries to explain
renewable and non-renewable resources.
– Initiates and guide students discussions on advantages and
disadvantages of the types.
– Takes students on field tour to identify renewable and non
renewable resources in their community.
Students : Participate in field work
– Watch documentaries of renewable and non-renewable
– Tabulate resources as renewable and non renewable resources.
Instructional Materials :
– illustrative diagrams and sketches

– Maps
– Video clips/tapes
7. Environmental Problems (HAZARDS)
Meaning and types (drought, desert encroachment, pollution,
deforestation, soil erosion; meaning, causes, effects and solutions.
8. Environmental Problems (HAZARDS) Cont.
Coastal Erosion: Meaning, areas affected, causes effects and
Flooding; meaning, causes, effect and solutions.
Deforestation; Meaning, area affected, causes, effects and solutions.
Teacher :
– Uses pictures and documentaries to guide
students discussion of ;
– Environmental problems and their effect on human activities
– Solution to the problems
– Takes students on field work to observe environmental
problems and their causes.
Students :
– Observe environmental problems in their community
– Watch documentary films of environmental problems
Instructional Materials :
Video clips/tapes
9. Environmental Problems (HAZARDS) Cont.
Pollution : Meaning and types (land pollution)
Water Pollution; meaning, causes, effects and solutions.
Air and noise Pollution; Meaning, causes, effect and solutions.
10. Environmental Conservation- Meaning and types/methods,
afforestation/re-afforestation, cover cropping improved, farming techniques, environmental education, recycling Methods of environmental conservation, improved farming methods.
Teacher :
– Uses pictures, charts and maps to explain the meaning of
environmental conservation
– Initiates and guides discussions on ;
– Types of environmental conservation
– Needs and importance of environmental conservation
Students :
Listen to teacher and participate in discussion

11. Environmental Conservation Cont.
Environmental education :
Importance of environmental education
Students : illustrative diagrams and sketches
– Documentaries
– Maps
– Video clips/tapes
12 Revision Revision
13-14 Examination Examination


Meaning and types of agricultural practice
(subsistence, mechanized, pastoral farming, crop rotation, mixed farming, shifting cultivation)
– Mechanized Agriculture
– Pastoral farming
Activities: The Teacher :
– Takes students on field work to observe agricultural practices.
– Uses maps, pictures, films, slides etc to guide discussions on ;
– Types of agricultural practices
– Nigeria’s major food and cash crops
– Importance of Agriculture
– Problems of Agriculture
– Guides and supervises students fluid as they draw map of Nigeria and locate major agricultural produce on map.
Students :
– Participate in outdoor activities and make records and report of
– Identify and classify agricultural practices in Nigeria
– Draw a map of Nigeria and insert the country’s major cash and food crops on map.
Instructional Materials
– Maps , Illustrative diagrams and sketches, farms in the locality,
pictures, slides etc
– Documentaries, Drawing paper and Tracing paper.
:2 Types of Agriculture in Nigeria:
Crop rotation
Mixed farming
Shifting Cultivation
3 Agriculture in Nigeria Cont.
Food and cash crops (locate the areas on the map)
Importance of agriculture in Nigeria and their solutions
4 Transportation in Nigeria : Teacher :

Meaning and types/modes of transportation (road, rail, water,
air, pipeline, aerial rope ways, human and animal porterage)- road transport; meaning-types merits, demerits problems and
Rail transport and pipeline, meaning, types, merits, demerits, problems and solutions.
Water transport; meaning types, merits, demerits, problems and
their solutions.
– Helps students identify and describe major modes of
transportation in Nigeria
– Guides students discussion on:
– Advantages and disadvantages of various modes of transportation.
– Transportation problems in Nigeria
– Influence of transportation on human activities.
Students :
– Draw maps of Nigeria showing the road and rail transportation
– Participate in class discussions
Instructional Materials :
Atlas, Maps, Documentary,
Diagrams and sketches.
Drawing and tracing paper
5 Transport and Communication in Nigeria
Problems of transportation and their solutions
Communication: meaning and types of communication
networks (telecommunications, telephones services, cellular
phones, voice mails etc; postal services, radio, television,
newspapers internet, face book etc)
Telecommunication and postal services meaning, merits and
Guides students to draw maps of
road and rail transportation systems in Nigeria
6 Communication in Nigeria
Types of communication network.
Radio and television( merits and demerits)
Newspapers and magazines meaning, types, merits and
Internet, face book etc; meaning, merits and demerits.
Teacher :
– Helps students identify and describe major communication
elements in Nigeria through use of pictures, films etc
– Takes students to visit communication industries in the
– Guides students discussions on
7 Communication in Nigeria Cont. ; advantages and Importance of communication

Problems of communication

disadvantages of communication system,
– Problems of communication
– Influence on human activities
Students :
– Visit communication companies/industries in locality
– Watch documentaries and films
– Participate in discussions
Instructional Materials :
Documentary, film/slides, posters, pictures
8 Manufacturing Industry in Nigeria
Definition and types of industry; primary, secondary, tertiary and
Major industrial zones in Nigeria; types of industry within each
zones and their products.
Factors affecting locations of industries
Teacher :
– Takes students on tour of manufacturing industries in the
– Uses of pictures, films maps etc to guide the discussions on
Students :
– Draw sketches maps of Nigeria showing major industrial zones
– Carry out field work and write reports on field work
Instructional Materials :
Map of Nigeria showing industrial zones
9 Industry in Nigeria Cont.
Local craft in Nigeria
Importance of manufacturing industries.
Problems of manufacturing industries and their solutions.
Teacher : guide discussions on: type of manufacturing industries
– Major industrial zones
– factors affecting location of manufacturing industries
– Problems and solutions.
10 Commercial Activities in Nigeria
Meaning and major commercial activities (trade, transportation
and commercialization)
Trade and major commercial area in Nigeria
Importance of commercial activities
Teacher :
– Takes students on field work to identify commercial activities in
the locality
– Use pictures, films, documentaries, maps etc to guide class discussions on ;
– Nigeria’s trade, stock exchange, capital market
– Major commercial zones
– Importance of commercial activities
Students :Draw sketch-maps of Nigeria showing commercial cities, – Carry out field work
Instructional Materials:
– Map of Nigeria showing commercial cities
– pictures , films showing trading on stock exchange
11 Revision Revision
12 Examination Examination
13 Examination Examination


1. Map Reading
Direction and bearing: The major cardinal points(true/magnetic north and magnetic variations)
Compass direction
Angular bearings
Activities: The Teacher :
– Explains the use of angular bearings and compass bearings
– Leads students to locate the major cardinal points
– Guides students to solve problems using examples from
topographical maps
Students :
– Draw diagrams showing major cardinal points and their bearings
– Determine the directions and bearings from topographical maps
Instructional Materials :
Topographical maps, Atlas, Plans, Compass.
2 Representation of Relief Forms :
Conventional signs and symbols.
Physical features (relief);
valleys, spur pass, knoll and hill.
Physical features (relief); escarpment, plateau, dissected plateau, ridge, cliff etc
Teacher :
– Uses maps, models, sketches on the board to help students to
recognize relief features on maps
– Uses sand trays and ashes to demonstrate formation of contour lines
Students :
– observe topographical maps to identify sets of physical features
– Constant topographical maps by using contour lines to represent
relief in their discrete forms

Instructional Materials:
Maps, atlas, models, Rulers, colours, sand, ashes, trays
3 Methods of representing Relief
Contour and hills shading
Relief colouring, spot heights, hachures Bench marks, boundary pillars, trigonometrical stations etc
Teacher :
– Guide discussions on methods of representing relief features on
4 World population
Definition, size and distribution patterns
Density (meaning, calculation, merits and demerits of high and low population densities and world population structure
Factors affecting population distribution (climate relief, water, minerals etc
Teacher :
– Uses maps, diagrams, pictures, documentary films etc to guide
students to discuss world population with respect to size, density structure and distributions patterns
– Guide class discussions on influence of climate, relief, soil,
water etc on population density and distribution
– Leads students to make sketches of world population distribution on a map.
Students :
– Draw sketch maps showing distribution of world’s population
– Watch films on population distribution.
Resources; population maps, sketches and diagrams, GIS maps
on population.
5 World Population Cont.
Reason for rapid growth of world population
Migration; meaning and types of migration
Factors responsible for migration, merit and demerits of migration
6 Settlement
Meaning and types of settlement (urban and rural settlements;
population, economy, administration etc)
Factors of settlement (soil, weather, topography etc)
Teacher :
– Guide students discussion of ;
– Settlement types
– Characteristics of urban and rural settlements
– Factors of settlement location
– Settlement patterns and their developmental factors.
– Uses maps and sketches to help students identify human
– Takes students on field work to observe human settlements
7 Settlement Cont.
Settlement patterns; dispersed, linear, isolated etc
Factors that aid the development of each patterns

Classification of settlement according to size patterns in the locality.
Student :
– Read topographical maps and identify human settlements on
the map
– Draw sketch diagrams showing settlement patterns in their
– Participate in field work and write reports
8 Settlement cont.
Classifications according to functions
Differences between urban and rural settlements
Settlement interactions; types of interactions(commercial,
cultural, administrative etc)
9 Settlement cont.
Interaction patterns within settlement urban-rural and
rural-urban, Urban-urban and rural-rural etc
Functions of settlement
Instructional materials:
Top-maps, Aerial photographs of human settlements, satellite
images, diagrams and sketches.
10 Geo-Political issues (Land Reclamation)
Meaning of land reclamation and methods: Afforestation,
construction of barriers, erosion control etc
Methods of land reclamation: Sand, fillings, constructions of drainage, erosion control etc.
Importance of land reclamation
Teacher :
– Guide students discussions on;
– Methods of Land reclamation
– Importance of land reclamation
– Uses photographs of reclamation sites to explain the concept of
land reclamation
– Take students on field work to land reclamation sites
– Participate in field work and write reports
– Carry out community development project on land reclamation
Instructional Materials:
– Photographs, Documentary, films, Diagrams and sketches
11 Geographic Information System (GIS) Data
Data sources: Land survey and remote sensing
Data sources; map digitalization and scanning
Data sources: field investigation and tabler data etc
Teacher :
– Explains GIS data sources
– Takes students on field work to collect geographic data using
various methods
– Supervises students on field work
Students : Participate in a guided field work
Instructional Materials
GPS, Satellite images, Maps
12 Revision and Examination

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