Adamawa State – “The Land Of Beauty”
Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, with its capital at Yola. It was formed in 1991 from part of Gongola State with four administrative divisions namely: Adamawa, Ganye, Mubi and Numan. It is one of the thirty-six (36) States which constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Adamawa is one of the largest states and occupies about 36,917 square kilometres. It is bordered by the states of Borno to the northwest, Gombe to the west and Taraba to the southwest. Its eastern border also forms the national eastern border with Cameroon. Topographically, it is a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue, Gongola and Yedsarem. The valleys of Cameroon, Mandara and Adamawa mountains form part of the landscape.
The major occupation of the people is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, tile Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah Zone. Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, yam, cassava, guinea corn, millet and rice. The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers. The state has network of roads linking all parts of the country.
The development of many communities in the State can be traced to the colonial era when the Germans ruled the Ganye area in the 19th century. These were however forfeited to the British at the end of the scramble for Africa at the Berlin.
A visit to the state will not be complete without going to Mubi. Mubi’s weather is very accommodating for human comfort. A visit to Nuhu Auwalu Wakili’s Palace will keep your memory of the state at all times. No wonder the state is some time known as “the land of beauty”.
Emirate of Adamawa
Before it became a state in Nigeria Adamawa was a subordinate kingdom of the Sultanate of Sokoto which also included much of northern Cameroon. The rulers bear the title of Emir (Lamido in the local language, Fulfulde). The name “Adamawa” came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibbo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usumaanu dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804.
Modibbo Adama came from the region of Gurin (now just a small village) and in 1806 received a green flag for leading the jihad in his native country. In the following years Adama conquered many lands and tribes. In 1838 he moved his capital to Ribadu, and in 1839 to Joboliwo. In 1841 he founded Yola where he died in 1848. After the European colonization (first by Germany and then by Britain) the rulers remained as Emirs, and the line of succession has continued to the present day.
Amirs of Yola have included:
- Modibbo Adama ben Hassan 1809-1848
- Lawalu ben Adama 1848-1872 (son of the previous)
- Sanda ben Adama 1872-1890 (brother of the previous)
- Zubayru ben Adama 1890-1901 (brother of the previous)
- Bibbo Ahmadu ben Adama 1901-1909 (brother of the previous)
- Iya ben Sanda 1909-1910 (son of Sanda ben Adama)
- Muhammadu Abba 1910-1924 (son of Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama)
- Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu ben Adamu 1924-1928
- Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba 1928-1946 (son of Muhammadu Abba)
- Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello 1946-1953
- Aliyu Mustafa 1953- 2010
- Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa incumbent (son of the previous)
See also Delta State Current Affairs
Topographically, Adamawa has a mountainous land crossed by the large river valleys – Benue, Gongola and Yedsarem. The valleys of Cameroon, Mandara and Adamawa mountains form part of the landscape.
The major occupation of the people of Adamawa State is farming as reflected in their two notable vegetational zones, tile Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah Zone. Their cash crops are cotton and groundnuts while food crops include maize, yam, cassava, guinea corn, millet and rice. The village communities living on the banks of the rivers engage in fishing while the Fulanis are cattle rearers. The state has network of roads linking all parts of the country.
Local Government in Adamawa State
TOURIST ATTRACTION IN ADAMAWA STATE
Sukur Cultural Landscape
Located in the Mandara mountains of Adamawa State, Sukur Cultural Landscape is listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites lists in 1999 because of its exceptional landscape illustrating a form of land-use that marks a critical stage in human settlement and its relationship with its environment. The cultural landscape of Sukur is also eloquent testimony to a strong and continuing spiritual and cultural tradition that has endured for many centuries.
The Mandara Mountains lie in the northeastern part of the state along the Cameroon border, and the Shebshi Mountains rise to Mount Dimlang (6,699 feet [2,042 m]) in the state’s south-eastern portion. Mandara is an ideal place for rock and mountain climbing. See Abia State Current Affairs
Koma hills is located on the mountainous fringes bordering the Republic of Cameroon and Nigeria in Jada, a local government area in Adamawa state, North East of Nigeria. Koma people, the inhabitants of the hills is a pre-modern race representing a past way of life probably of stone age, compact with primitive themes and mode of dressing bordering on nudity which they uphold as a cultural heritage.
Lamurde Hot Spring
Lamurde hot spring is part of the world popular Sukur Cultural Landscape, which consists of a palace, villages, and the remains of an iron industry. The place was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999 and has since become one of the top tourist destinations in Nigeria.
The Phuki Festival
The Phuki festival as it is known by the people of Yandang, signifies the celebration of the ‘New Crops’ that are yet to be harvested. It can therefore be known as, the ‘New Crop Festival’ of the Yandang tribe of Kudaku.
The provenance of this annual festival according to tradition is not precisely known, because it is one of the oldest traditions whose origin is immemorial. The festival usually comes up between the end of September and the beginning of October (every year). This inherited tradition, according to the belief of the people, must be performed yearly in order to avert bad omen from the gods of the land.
During the festival, the community uses the opportunity to pray for a bumper harvest, peace and stability for all, and plenty of rain and strength for the next cropping season. All these prayers are manifested in the rituals and celebration during the festival.
Vunon Cultural Festival
The Vunon Festival dates back to about three centuries ago. It is celebrated by the Bachama, Batta and Mbula people for the first rain of the year. It usually takes place at Farai, the village of Nzeanzo. The three-day cultural/religious ceremony is to recall the death of Vunon, Nzeanzo’s mother, whose hut is kept as a shrine, attended by a priest and priestess in the spirit groove near Farai.
The first day begins with wrestling and dancing at the spirit groove (Wodi Khake). This normally ends up with a procession from the spirit groove to one of the festival grounds (sites) situated at Farai. Here, well dressed women in traditional costume, entertain the spectators with a spectacular dance (Bwe Pule).
Aside wrestling and dancing, artefacts or crafts like pots, calabash, wooden spoons, hoes, and other goods are sold to spectators, visitors and tourists. Beverages of all kinds and food are sold to guests in what could be called a picnic sitting arrangement.
The Farai cultural/religious festival is an annual event. It is a celebration of demigods believed by Bachama people to have been real people at one time.
Nzeanzo is the youngest of these demigods worshiped annually at Farai village. During this festivity period, fighting and stealing are taboos. The Bachama/Batta men or women are perceived to be culturally tolerant or socially notorious; morals are decidedly lax during these days.
Njuwa Fishing Festival
Njuwa is an annual fishing festival performed by the Buatiye (Bata) people of Rugange, Njoboliyo, Dasin, Dulo, Bagale, Dagri, and Vunoklan villages of Adamawa Emirate. Though there is no fixed date for the festival, it usually takes place when the level of the water in the lake subsides.
In most cases, it comes up in the month of April. The fishing festival attracts many people from within and outside the state. It is one of the numerous festivals in the state that attracts milling crowds. Some of these festivals include Kuchichep in Takum, Ibi fishing festival in Ibi, Vunon wrestling in Farai near Numan, Yinagu near Gulak and Kilashe feast at Mbulo near Ganye.
The Njuwa fishing festival used to be a two-day occasion, which is normally marked by a lot of performances, ranging from traditional dances to competitive running, tug-of-war, boat riding, swimming, fishing, etc.
The festival, like other fishing festivals in the country, attracts many fishermen with different kinds of style and skill in catching fish. While some make good use of their bare hands and gourds to catch fish, others make use of nets to do so.
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