Famous Scientists And Their Invention
J.J Thompson, an English physicist and a Noble Laureate in Physics, is credited and honoured with the discovery of the electron, which were the first subatomic particles to be discovered. Thomson managed to show that cathode rays were composed of previously unknown negatively charged particles (electrons), which he calculated and inferred might have smaller bodies than atoms and a very large charge-mass ratio. He is also credited for finding the first evidence for the existence of isotopes for stable elements.
Ernest Rutheford, a Zealand chemist is regarded as the “father of nuclear physics.” He was the first to propose that an atom comprises a small charged nucleus surrounded by empty space and are circled by tiny electrons which later, became known as the Rutherford model. He is credited with the discovery of protons and hypothesised the existence of the neutron.
John Dalton’s major contribution was his theory on atoms which consists of five parts as follows:
James Chadwick, a British physicist was awarded the Nobel prize in 1935 for his discovery of the neutron. Bombarding elements with neutron can result in the penetration and splitting of nuclei generating an enormous amount of energy. This way, Chadwick’s findings were pivotal to the discovery of nuclear fission and ultimately the development of the atomic bomb.
Issac Newton’s discoveries created a launch pad for future developments in science. His most noteworthy discoveries were as follows:
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb is best known for what now is known as the Coloumb’s law, which explains the electrostatic attraction and repulsion. He formulated this law in an effort to study the law of electrostatic repulsion put forward by the English scientist Joseph Priestley. He also extensively worked on the friction of machinery, the elasticity of metal and silk fibres. The SI unit of electric charge – Coloumb, is named after him.
Georg Simon Ohm, a German Physicist, discovered the law named after him, known as the “Ohm’s Law” which states that the current flowing a conductor is directly proportional to its voltage and inversely proportional to its resistance.
Faraday was a man devoted to discovery through experimentation. He was famous for never giving up on ideas that came from scientific intuition. When he thought of an idea, he would keep experimenting through multiple failures until he got what was expected. Below is the list of his few noteworthy discoveries:
Q Becquerel was a French physicist best known for his work on radioactivity for which he won a Nobel prize. As a result, the SI unit of radioactivity Becquerel is named after him.
Marie Sklodowska-Curie was a chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel prize. She is the only woman to win the Nobel prize twice in two different fields. She is most famous for the discovery of elements Polonium and Radium.
Max Planck, a German Physicist, is best known for his proposition of the quantum theory of energy for which he was awarded the Nobel prize. His work contributed significantly to the atomic and subatomic processes.
During his work on electromagnetism, Heinrich reported another important phenomenon known as the Photoelectric effect. He noticed that UV rays made the metal lose charges faster than otherwise, which led him to publish his findings in the journalAnnalen der Physik. He did not investigate this effect further on. Later, in 1905, Albert Einstein proposed that light came in discrete packets of energy known as the photons. This discovery led to the development of Quantum mechanics.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, a German physicist, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as the X-rays. This discovery earned him a Nobel Prize in Physics.
As discussed before, Rutherford described an atom as consisting of a positive centre mass surrounded by orbiting electrons. Neil Bohr suspected that electrons revolved in quantised orbits. Having suspected this, Bohr worked on Rutherford’s model and proved that particles couldn’t occupy just any energy level.
Fermi was an Italian-American Physicist who created the world’s first nuclear reactor. He is widely known as the “architect of the nuclear age” and the “architect of the atomic bomb.” He won a Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity by neutron bombardment. He also made significant contributions in the field of quantum theory, statistical mechanics and nuclear and particle physics.
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