1 Introduction to Geography;

  • Definition and scope of geography
  • Importance of geography
  • Guide students to explain concepts of geography
  • Define geography
  • Explains the scope and importance of geography
  • Students draws references from the local environment to explain the term geography.
    Resources; Pictures, Maps
  • 2 Geography of FCT
  • Location, position and size of FCT
  • Political division FCT, Towns and villages and their headquarters.
  • Physical setting of FCT.
    Relief and drainage
  • Draw a sketch map of FCT and insert some major physical and cultural features.
  • Guide discussions on ;
    a) location, position, size of FCT,
    b) political divisions,
    c) physical setting etc.
    Resources;Pictures, maps, atlas, drawing paper.
  • 3 Climate and vegetation of FCT;
  • CLIMATE: Temperature and rainfall, humidity, etc
  • Vegetation type; (man and natural vegetation)
  • Population and people of FCT
    Guide discussions on:
  • Climate of FCT
  • Vegetation type
  • Population
  • Mineral resources and agriculture
  • Commercial activities in FCT
  • Carry out a guided field word
    4 Economic Activities in FCT :
  • Mineral resources and agriculture
  • Industries and commercial activities in FCT
  • 5 The solar system
  • Definition of solar system
  • Components of the solar system and their characteristics
  • Size and shape of the earth.
  • Guide students to model the solar system
  • Uses the model to guide students to identify and describe components of solar system.
  • Guides discussions on:
    a) shapes and size of the earth, 2)
    position of the earth in relation to the sun.
  • model the Solar System
    Resources;Globe, Aerial photographs of the earth,
    Illustrative diagrams.
    6 Earth’s Sphericity, Rotation and Revolution.
  • Evidence of the earth’s sphericity
  • Meaning of Rotation and its effects
  • Meaning of Revolution and its effects
    TEACHER: Uses the globe and other models to demonstrate Rotation and Revolution
  • guide discussions on effects of the earth’s rotation and revolution
    STUDENTS: watch demonstrations and ask questions
    INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS; Globe, slide, Torch light and any source of light, diagrams
    7 – Difference between Rotation and Revolution
  • Eclipse; Dawn and Twilight
    8 Latitudes and Longitudes;
  • Meaning of Latitudes and important line of latitudes.
  • Calculation of distances using lines of latitudes
  • Meaning of longitudes, important lines of longitudes and their uses
  • Differences and similarities between latitude and longitudes
  • Great and small circles.
    TEACHER :uses the globe and map of the world to identify and explain:
  • Latitudes and longitudes
  • Equator, Meridian, Greenwich mean time, international Date line and grid reference.
  • Listen to teacher’s explanations, ask questions, Participate in discussions, Determine distances, time and time zones from Latitude and Longitude.
  • Atlas, globe, illustrativediagrams of positions of major
    regions of the world etc.
  • 9 – Calculation of local time and longitudes
  • International date line
  • Greenwich mean time (GMT), Standard time, local
    time and time zones.
    TEACHER: – Guides discussions on :
    Equator, Relationship withmajor regions of the world. The
    meridian and the time zones etc
  • Guides students to:
    -differentiate between latitudes and longitudes, Calculate local time of places from Longitudes.
  • STUDENTS: Determine distances, time and time zones from latitudes and longitudes
  • Major spheres of the earth(atmosphere, biosphere, etc)
  • Interior structure of the earth(crust, mantle and core)
  • Rock types (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic) and their characteristics (structure, colour and texture. )
    TEACHER: Uses diagrams and sketches to guide students to :
  • Identify earth’s major spheres
  • Identify the structure of the earth’s crust
  • Initiates and guides discussions on composition of the spheres
  • characteristics of crust, mantle etc
  • explains relationship between the spheres etc
    STUDENTS: – Participate in guided tour of the school to observe the earth’s spheres
  • Draw and label cross section of
    earth’s crust
    Illustrative diagrams, sketches, models of the cross section of earth’s interior
    11 Rocks contd.
  • Mode of formation and uses of rocks
  • Mountains types: ( fold, block, etc) and their mode of
  • Characteristics and uses of mountains
    TEACHER: Takes students on field work to collect and classify rocks
    -Initiate and guide discussions on :
    structure, colour, texture, permeability of rock types,
  • Process of formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
  • Mode of formation and importance of rock.
    STUDDENTS: Bring pictures and things made from rock
  • Prepare an album of rocks in the
  • locality
  • INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS :Rock samples ,Pictures of rock, Illustrative diagram
  • Meaning, types of plateaux, uses and disadvantages of
  • Lowlands: Meaning, types (valleys , crust, plains) etc.
  • Importance and disadvantages of low lands.
    TEACHER: – Uses pictures and models to guide students to identify different mountains types
    -Takes students on guided tour of locality to observe highland and lowland in the locality
  • Initiate discussions on :
  • characteristics of mountain types,
    types of lowland processes of formation,
  • Importance and disadvantages etc
    STUDENTS: Participate in guided tour to observe mountains and lowlands
  • Make models of mountains , lowlands
    INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Atlas, Maps, sketches, pictures of lowlands, Models
    13 Revision Revision
    14 Examination Examination
    1 The Environment :Weather and
    climate :
  • Meaning of environment, types and importance
  • Definition of weather and climate and their differences
  • Elements of weather and their instruments used in recording them.
  • Conduct outdoor activities for students to observe the environment
  • Guide class discussions on;
    classification of environment (physical, social, cultural
  • Recognize components of the environment into 3 major domains
  • Weather elements and their attributes
  • importance of weather on physical and human activities
  • Guides students to make measurements and keep weather
  • Attribute of climate (variability), aerial extents, decoration, etc
  • Importance of weather. records
  • Guides students to discussing factors affecting climate with examples.
    STUDENTS: participate in guided tour to observe mountains, lowland
  • Make models of mountains, lowlands
  • Take weather measurements and keep weather records
    Illustrative diagram and sketches, Rain Guauge, Wind Vane, Barometer, Hygrometer etc
  • Altitude, Latitude,Slope and aspect, continentality etc
  • Location, position, size and distance( Latitudes, longitudes, boundaries and neighbours)
  • Political division of Nigeria(states and their capitals, local government and their headquarters.
  • Uses maps to help students describe the location and position of Nigeria with respect to her neighbours
  • Guides students to;
  • Describe location of states and their capitals with reference to latitudes and longitudes
  • Determine size, area, landmarks of Nigeria
  • Draw political maps of Nigeria, insert states and their headquarters
  • Discuss Nigeria’s climate, characteristics of different seasons etc.
    Discuss drainage of Nigeria.
  • Draw a map of Nigeria showing relief and drainage distribution.
    STUDENTS: calculate the area of Nigeria
  • Draws the political map of Nigeria showing the states capitals and local government headquarters
  • Draw relief map of Nigeria and linking it with drainage distribution of Nigeria.
    political maps of Nigeria, Globe, illustrative diagrams and sketches.
  • Relief- Highland And Low Lands
    Drainage –Major Rivers and their characteristics
  • Importance and problems of Nigerians rivers
  • River Basin- meaning , major basins and uses of basins
  • Lakes in Nigeria: Meaning, types, reasons for shallowness of lake chad
  • Uses of Lakes
  • Definition, concepts and population distribution
  • Population structure and quality
    TEACHER : Guides students to observe population structure and distribution.
  • Guides class discussions on:
    -Population, size, distribution and Population
  • movement(migration) and population data (census) structure
  • -Population quality, population movement, data and their sources and problems of data
  • STUDENTS: observe distribution of population within the school
  • Identify and locate highly
    populated urban centres, rural
    areas with sparse population
  • Map of Nigeria showing population distribution, pictures,
  • slides of densely populated areas, posters of HIV/AIDS to explain quality of population
  • Maps showing various resources
  • Mineral resources: meaning and types of mineral
    resources (petroleum, national gas, tin and columbite, etc
  • Power resources(petroleum, gas, HEP, solar energy, etc.
    water resources: meaning ,types(river lakes, dams, seas, underground water
    TEACHER: Leads students to identify various minerals on Nigeria
  • Takes students out to observe mining sites, observe vegetation and water resources within and around community.
  • Guides students to
    -Locate where Nigeria’s major resources are found in the map
    -Discuss the importance of these resources to Nigeria’s economy
    STUDENTS: Make record /report of resources found in their community
    -Identify and classify Nigeria’s resources
    -Draw a map of Nigeria and insert various resources
  • Map of Nigeria showing population distribution, pictures,
  • slides of densely populated areas, posters of HIV/AIDS to explain quality of population
  • Maps showing various resources
  • Vegetation resources; meaning and types of
    vegetation(Man and natural
    TEACHER: Leads discussions on the meaning and types of vegetation and the importance of vegetation to man
    STUDENTS: Should be able to differentiate, giving examples, betweenvegetation (e.g crops, government etc)
  • human and natural vegetation .
  • INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL: Pictures, slides, Maps
  • Maps: meaning, types, examples and uses.
  • Scales: definition, types , attributes, size (small and large), merits and demerits.
  • Conversion of scales
    TEACHER: -Brings different types of maps to class.
  • Helps the students to identify different types of maps
  • Guides class discussion on
    -Meaning, types and uses of maps,, and map scales .
    STUDENTS: Identify different types of maps brought to class convert on type of scale to another
  • INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL:different types of maps , Atlas, Ruler or measuring tape.
  • 11 Revision Revision
    12 Examination Examination
    1 Map Distance:
  • Measurement of units and conversion of distance to map
  • Map Reduction
  • Map enlargement
    Teacher: guides the class discussion on ;
  • Measurement of distances and conversions to real distance
  • Demonstrate map reduction and enlargement
  • Guide students as they enlarge, reduce maps
  • Identification of physical and
  • 2 Interpretation of physical and cultural features:
  • Contour lines, definition, intervals etc
  • Physical features (ridges, spurs, valleys, hills, rivers etc)
  • Cultural features (road, settlements, schools,
    communication lines, etc cultural features
  • Relationship between physical and cultural features.
  • carry out practical activities on map reduction and enlargement
  • Solve problems on how scales of map can change when maps are reduced or enlarged.
  • carry out practical work on map interpretation
    Instructional materials:
  • Maps, sketches, Ruler, Drawing paper slides
    3 Transportation:
  • Definition, types/modern means of transportation(roads,
    rail, water, air, pipeline, etc
  • Uses maps, diagrams, pictures to guide students to identify
    transportation types.
  • Merits and Demerits of each type of transportation
  • Importance and problems of transportation.
  • Sketch map of Nigeria showing rails, air transport
    Instructional Materials : Maps, Atlas, Films, drawing paper.
    4 Industry :
  • Definition and classes of Industries.(Primary,
    secondary, tertiary and quaternary .
  • Heavy and light Industries
    Teacher : Guides students to
  • Locate major industrial regions on a world map
  • Identify and describe major industries
  • Takes students out to visit industries in the locality
    Students : Draw maps and locate major industrial regions in Nigeria, and the world.
  • Pay visit to local industries
    Instructional materials :
  • World maps, sketches, Films, pictures
    5 Basic concepts of geographic information system (GIS)
  • Definition and geographic data
    Teacher :
  • Explains concepts of GIS and Geographic data
  • (lines for users, roads, rails, etc, points for bore holes,
  • images etc)
  • Sources of GIS (maps, fieldwork, satellite, images, etc)
  • Importance of geo-, geographic data and the GIS
  • Guides discussions on ;
  • Sources of geographic data e.g
    maps, data from field work, satellite images etc
  • Geo-referencing for GIS data
  • Importance of GIS
    Student : Participate in guided field work
    Instructional Materials : Maps, Air
    photo, computer system with GIS software installed
    6 Components of GIS
  • Hardware (digitizer, global positioning system (GPS),
    Computer, printer, scanner, etc and software (data, imput, storage, retrieval, manipulations, etc)
  • Data: Positional and rational
  • Procedures(sets of rules) and people (experts)
    Teacher :Guides students to ;
  • identify GIS hardware
  • identify the various software and their uses
  • use GIS hardware e.g Digitizer, GPS, Computer etc
  • Initiate discussions on data types components of GIS, procedures etc
    Students :Manipulate/use the GPS, Digitizer and computer to process geographic data
    Instructional Materials; Sketches showing components of GIS Slides, GPS, Printer etc.
  • 7 Earth’s External Processes and Land Form Development :
  • Action of running water:
    definition and terms associated with running water (River) – sources and courses of a river, slope, shape of valley, volume of water, size of materials
  • Stages of a river development-upper course (characteristics, processes and features produced)
  • Middle course of a river (characteristics, processes of
    river transportation and features produced)
  • Initiates the discussion leading to ;
  • Definition and explanation of major terms associated with actions of running water.
  • Use of diagrams to explain processes of river erosion ;
    Corrosion, attrition, hydraulic action
  • Processes of river transport: use of diagrams to describe
    landforms in various stages of river development.
    Students : Draw diagrams or models showing various landforms associated with stages of river development
  • participate in guided tour to observe some of these landforms
  • Instructional Materials :
  • Pictures, slides, models, illustrated diagrams.
  • Drainage pattern-Dentritic, trellised
    and radial
    8 Stages of River Development
  • Lower course of a river
    (characteristics and features
    e.g levees,
  • Delta : Definition,
    characteristics, conclusions for
    formation, types and
    Teacher : uses of pictures, models
    and sketches to explain
  • Processes of wind erosion
  • Formation and characteristics of
    wind erosion
  • Landforms , mode of formation and
    characteristics of wind deposition
    Students : Draw diagrams and
    construct models showing various
    erosion and deposition landforms
    9 Action of Winds
  • Definition and processes of
    wind erosion (abrasion,
    attrition and deflation)
  • Features/landforms of wind
    erosion(rock pedestal,
    zeugens, yardangs, etc
  • Features of wind deposition
    (loes, barchans, seif domes)
    10 Glacier action :
  • Definition of terms associated
    with glacier (ice, glacier,
    glaciations and features of
    glacier erosion in the highland
  • Glacier features in lowland
    areas roche mountanee, crag
    and tail boulder clay erratic
    drumlins, eskers etc
  • Economic importance of glacier features
    Teacher :
  • Uses pictures, models to :
  • explain characteristics features of landforms in glacier regions
  • Help students locate the
    countries/regions where these
    landforms are found
  • Guides discussions on mode of
    formation and economic
    Students : Draw annotated diagrams
    to show the features of various
    Instructional Materials : Films,
    Models, Annotated diagrams and
    11 Revision Revision
    12 Examination Examination