BIOLOGY SS1 FIRST TERM
This scheme of work contains week ,topic content, activities, for easy lesson planning
1.RECOGNISING LIVING THINGS
2.CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
3.CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS CONT.
(I) Characteristics of living thing.
ii) Difference between plant and animals
ii) Levels of organization of Life with examples.
I) kingdom Monra:-
Characteristics & examples
ii) Kingdom protista
Characteristics & example
i) Kingdom fungi:-
Characteristics & examples
ii) Kingdom plantae :–
Characteristics & examples
iii) Kingdom Animalia :-
Note: the kingdoms should be classified into prokaryotes
and eukaryotes: also in kingdom plantae.
I. The teacher group the student into two, one group to collect living things and the other group to collect non- living things for comparison.
ii) Teacher provides a living cockroach and a potted plant, asks student to write down their observation.
i) Teacher to grow culture of bacteria and blue – green algae, asks student to observe the cultures, record and make inferences.
i) Teacher guide students to uproot the farm plant, collect lemon, pistia (water lettuce), break some branches of shrubs & bring them into the laboratory, asks student to observe all the specimens, record and make inferences. Difference between higher and lower plant should be emphasized.
4 THE CELL.
i) Cell as a living unit of living organism
ii) The cell theory
iii) Forms in which living things exist
— independent organism
— As a colony
— As filament,
iv) Cell structures and functions of cell component.
v) Differences between plants and animal cell.
I). Teacher Provide Prepared slides of Paramecium or Euglena, volvox and spirogyra, asks students to observe the slides under the microscope and record their observation.
Ii). Teacher mounts slides of plant and animal cells forstudent to observe, draw, label and note their difference and similarities.
5. CELL & ITS ENVIROMENT
i)Diffusion – Definition, processes & significance
ii) Osmosis – Definition, processes & significance
iii) Definition of Plasmolysis, Haemolysis, Turgidity and flaccidity.
iv) Biological importance.
i) Teacher provides perfume and request a student to spray at one end of the classroom and ask the student to describe what happened
ii) Teacher to demonstrate diffusion and osmosis using living and non-living components.
6 PROPERTIES & FUNTIONS OF THE CELL
i) feeding:- Definition and types
a) Autotrophic nutrition
b) Heterotrophic nutrition and mode of nutrition.
i) The teacher sets up experiment to show the effects of different nutrients or spirogyra. Asks students to observe record and discuss
7 PROPERTIES & FUNCTIONSOF THE CELL CONTINUE
i) Micro and Macro nutrients
ii) Deficiency and effects of macro elements Respiration
i) Gaseous exchange (external respiration)
iii) Aerobic respiration (kreb cycle)
iv) Anaerobic respiration
i) Teacher sets experiments to show respiration in yeast
(anaerobic) and respiration in rat (aerobic)
ii) Teacher draws the Krebs cycle on the chalkboard and asks the students to draw also.
iii) Teacher demonstrates to students action of ptyalin on(lactic acid formation)
v) Difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
vi) Role of enzyme in cellular respiration
cooked starch and the student also produce saliva from their
mouths to carry out the experiment.
i) Definition of excretion
ii) importance of excretion
iii) Difference between excretion, secretion and egestion.
iv) Diagram of excretory morganelle
v) products of different excretory organelle
vi) forms in which excretory product are excreted.
i) Teacher ask students to run round the class to produce sweat and observe what happens to them then and
after a minutes.
9 GROWTH. I) Basis of Growth – Cell Division (Mitosis) , Cell enlargement and cell differentiation.
ii) regulation of growth by hormones
iii) Example of animal hormones
v) growth measurement
(height, weight , dry mass, size
i) Teacher demonstrates growth by students measuring
their height (length) and weight.
10. IRRITABILITY i. Cell reaction to its environment, irritability as a basic characteristics of protoplasm.
ii. Types of responses with example: Nastic, tropic and taxis.
iii. Positive and negative responses
i. Demonstration of Nastic response using Nimoss pudica plant
ii. Demonstration of the
response to light and earth using plant shoot and plant root.
iii. Teacher perform experiments to show
11 MOVEMENT Ai. Definition and importance
ii. cyclosis in protozoa
iii. organelles for movement
a. Phototrophic response of shoots.
b. geotropic response of roots
iv. growth movement as regulated by axins
i. Types of reproduction – sexual and asexual
ii. difference between sexual and asexual
c. geotropic response of shoots
d. phototadic response in earth worms
12. REPRODUCTION CONTINUES
i. Reproduction in
ii. Vegetative or artificial reproduction
i. Teacher provide yeast, warm water and plastics bowls and also provides prepared slides of conjugation in paramecium, asks students to examine mounted paramecium, identify and draw conjugating paramecium using microscopes or power lens.
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14 Examination Examination Examination
BIOLOGY SS1 SECOND TERM
WEEKS TOPIC CONTENTS ACTIVITIES
1 TISSUE AND SUPPORTING SYSTEM
i) Definition of supporting and
ii) Types of skeleton
Exo (ecto) skeleton
Endo – skeleton
iii) Skeletal materials:- Chitin,
cartilage and bone
iv) Functions of supporting
tissues in plants and animals –
protection, support, locomotion,
strength, rigidity, resistance to
forces of wind and water.
i) Teacher and students
together provide cockroaches,
earthworm and cartilaginous
fish, individual bone of the
mammalian skeleton and
infant mammalian skeleton,
asks students to observe all
the specimen taking note of
the different skeleton and
stating the types of skeleton.
ii) Teacher provide small
mammal and guide students
to produce a mammalian
skeleton, ask students to
identify and list the main parts
of the mammalian skeleton.
2 VERTEBRATE SKELETON
i) Axial skeleton – The skull
and vertebral column
ii) Appendicular skeleton – The
limbs, sternum and ribs, limb
i) Teacher provides relevant
materials for students to make
working model of a human
arm, ask students to observe
the protection functions of the
shell of snails, skull of toad.
3 SUPPORTING TISSUE IN PLANTS
i) Types of supporting tissue in
ii) Location of supporting tissue
iii) Structures and components
of supporting tissues in plants
paranchyma, xylem, phloem
i) Teacher provides transverse
section of stems and roots of
dicotyledons plants, asks
students to view transverse
section of roots and stem
under the microscope and
make drawing of the tissue
taking note of the shape of the
cells of the various tissues
4 A) NUTRITION IN ANIMALS
i) Food substances – classes
ii) Concept of balance diet and
i) Teacher provides garri, yam,
rice, meat, butter, common
salt, fish, prewn, pepper,
cowpea, sabs etc to the class,
B) MODE OF NUTRITION
iii) Food test
i) Types of heterotrophic
nutrition – holozoic,
saprophytic and parasite
ii) Feeding mechanism in
holozoic organisms – filter
feeding, fluid feeding and
ask students to categorize the
food items under four classes
i) Teacher exposes some
pieces of meat in the
laboratory, ask students to
observe flies feed on them
and record their observation.
5 A)MAMMALIAN TEETH
i) Forms – milk and permanent
ii) Types – Incisors, canines,
premolar & molar
iii) Structures of a tooth (canine
iv) Dental formular and
adaption – Herbivores,
carnivores and omnivores
i) Definition of enzymes
ii) Characteristic of enzymes
iii) Types of digestive enzymes
– sources, location, substance
acted upon and effect/products
iv) importance / functions of
i) Teacher collects different
types of teeth from the abattoir
and from killed cats or dogs,
ask students to observe the
different teeth, draw and label
i) Teacher performs
experiment to test for the
acidity of the enzyme ptyalin,
ask students to observe the
experiment, record and
discuss their observations.
6 BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS
A)COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM
i) Components of an
– Biotic (living) and Abiotic
– Aquatic and terrestrial
ii) Definitions of common terms
in ecological studies –
i) Teacher takes students on a
fieldtrip to at least one of the
biotic communities e.g. forest
reserve or a botanic garden,
ask students to study the
community, record and
ii) Teacher makes available
study charts, photographs and
films of different biotic
communities in Nigeria and
nicher habitat, biotic,
i) Local communities (biomes)
– Nigeria ecological region
(sahel, sudan, guinea savanna,
tropical forest, swamp forest)
ii) Major biomes of the world:
Tropical forest, savanna,
desert, shrub, apro – alphine
biomes of the world.
7 POPULATION STUDIES BY SAMPLING METHOD
i) Population size, population
dominance, population density
ii) Factors affecting population
iii) Ecological factors affecting
aquatic and terrestrial habitat
iv) Importance of ecological
factors to population of plant &
i) Teacher guides the students
to measure sizes of the
ii) Teacher displays ecological
instruments ask student to
study them and discuss, show
students how to improvise
some measuring instruments
e.g. wind vane
8 ECOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTINUES
i) Relationship between soil types and water holding effects of soil on vegetation
ii) Simple measurement of ecological factors and measuring instrument e.g. physical factors and edaphic factors.
i) Students with the help of the teacher perform the experiment to compare water holding capacity in the three samples of soil e.g. loamy, clay and sandy soil
9 FUNCTIONING ECOSYSTEM
i) Definitions of autotrophy & heterotrophy
ii) Definition of terms – yProducer, consumers, aquatic and terrestrial.
iii) Examples of producers and consumers.
i) Teacher show samples of autotrophs and heterophs to students
ii) Student collect organisms and classify them as producers, consumers and decomposers.
10 TROPHIC LEVELS
i) Definition of food chain and food web
ii) Non-cycle nature of energy transfer
iii) Nutrient movement (energy
i) Guide students to make chart showing relationship
among organisms e.g. food chain, food web.
ii) Students to develop a chart flow) in aquatic and terrestrial habitat.
iv) Pyramid of number and energy
v) Nature of energy flow in food chain and food web.
showing relationships among organisms (food chain, food web)
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12 Examination Examination Examination
BIOLOGYSS1 THIRD TERM
WEEK TOPIC CONTENT ACTIVITIES
1 ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN NATURE
i). Energy loss in ecosystem
II). Laws of thermodynamics
iii) Application of law of thermodynamics to ecological phenomenon.
Iv). Food chain.
i). Teacher uses the law of thermodynamics to explain energy flow across the tropic levels.
2 RELEVANCE OF BIOLOGY TO AGRICULTURE.
i) classification of plants
ii) Botanical classification e.g. algae, spermatophyte
ii) Agricultural classification e.g. fibre plant non- fibre plant.
iv) Classification based on life cycle e.g. annual biennial and perennials.
i) Teacher shows student various type of plant and classifies them.
3 EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITTIES ON ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM
i) Effect of bush burning , tillage , fertilizers, herbicide and pesticide application.
ii) Effect of different types of farming method on ecosystem
i) takes students, on field trip to a farm land cleared by burning.
ii) Teacher leads student to visit farm projects and herbicide.
4 PEST & DISEASES OF AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE.
i) Definition and types of pests
ii) life cycle of pests
iii) control of pests
iv) Disease – types of diseases
i) takes students to a livestock farm to identify pests of animals
ii) student make a table showing local farm livestock pests and disease they cause
5 FOOD PRODUCTION AND STORAGE.
i) Role of food in agricultural production
ii) factors affecting
production and storage
iii) ways of improving crop yield
iv) cause of wastage
v) Methods of preserving and storing food.
i) Demonstrate different food storage methods to student e.g. drying, salting etc.
6 POPULATION GROWTH & FOOD SUPPLY.
i) relationship between
availability of food and human population
ii) effects of food shortage
iii) Government effort to increase food production e.g. Agricultural resolution
i) collect a large number of insects and use them to demonstrate the effect of food shortage.
7. MICRO ORGANISMS AROUND US
i)classification e.g. viruses bacteria, fungi protozoa
ii) carriers e.g. victors and transmitting organisms.
iii) beneficial effects and harmful effects.
iv) growth of micro-organism
v) control and prevention of micro-organism disease (public health)
i) Divide the student into working groups, provide each group with sterilized
Petri- dishes which contain culture medium
ii) Student in each group grow cultures of micro organism from air, water and under the finger nails
8 AQUATIC HABITAT i) Definition
ii) Types of aquatic habitat
iii) aquatic organism and its adaptive features
iv) Characteristics of aquatic habitat
v) Food chain and food web in aquatic habitats
Teacher: Observe the pattern of distribution of the biotic components in the habitats and their adaptive features.
9. TERRESTRIAL HABITAT
ii) types of terrestrial habitat
iii) Terrestrial organisms and their adaptive features
Teacher: Construct food chain of the biotic component
iv) Characteristics of terrestrial habitat
v) Food chain and food web in terrestrial habitat
10. CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS
i) Classification of plants into seed bearing and non seed
ii) Classification of plants into cereals and legumes
iii) Classification into root crops, vegetables fruits, beverage and drug, oils latex (fibre)
i) Leads students to classify the specimens using agricultural
11 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
i) Types of digestive system
ii) Description and functions of the parts of alimentary tract
iii) Diagram of digestive tract of different groups of organisms.
i) With the aid of dissected specimens, models, charts, teach the
alimentary canals of planariam, earthworm, grasshopper, birds and rabbits
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13 Examination Examination Examination
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